Frequently Asked Questions for Virtual Machines

How to obtain root privileges?

Execute any command as the root user by prefixing it with the sudo command. For example, to check server status, use the command below and enter the password for the bitnami user when prompted:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh status

To directly log in using the root user account, use this command:

$ sudo su

To set a new password for the root user account, use these commands:

$ sudo su
$ passwd

How to find application credentials?

The default username and password for the application is typically user and bitnami. You can obtain these credentials from the server console, above the login prompt, as shown below:

Application credentials

How to start or stop the servers?

Each Bitnami stack includes a control script that lets you easily stop, start and restart servers. The script is located at /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh. Call it without any service name arguments to start all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start

Or use it to restart a single service, such as Apache only, by passing the service name as argument:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart apache

Use this script to stop all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop

Restart the services by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart

Obtain a list of available services and operations by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh  

How to change the login password for the virtual machine?

The default login password for the virtual machine console is displayed when it starts up, as shown below:

Server credentials

You will be automatically prompted to change this when you log in the first time. To change it later, execute the command below at the console:

$ passwd

How to remotely access the Bitnami application?

Access the Bitnami application by browsing to the virtual machine's IP address. This address is typically assigned to it by a DHCP server in your network. The IP address is displayed on screen at the end of the boot process, as shown below:

Server configuration

To see the current IP address, execute the ifconfig command at the server console after logging in. If no IP address is assigned, consider the various options below:

  • Try reloading the IP address using the command below:

     $ sudo /etc/init.d/networking force-reload
    
  • If there is no DHCP server available or the DHCP server is not configured to give IP addresses to unknown hosts, use the built-in hypervisor DHCP server. Stop the virtual machine, update the network adapter to use "NAT" instead of "Bridged" mode, and restart the machine, as shown below. Note that this solution produces only an internal IP address for the virtual machine, so the Bitnami application will only be accessible from the hypervisor host.

  • An alternative approach is to configure the network manually and assign a static IP address to the virtual machine. For example, if your local network uses IP addresses of the form 192.168.1.X and you know that the IP address 192.168.1.234 is unassigned, manually assign this to the virtual machine by executing the command below at the virtual machine console:

     $ sudo ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.234 netmask 255.255.255.0 up 
    

    With this configuration, the Bitnami application should be accessible from any host on the same network at the IP address 192.168.1.234.

How to configure the application's IP address or hostname?

By default, Bitnami applications update their internal IP address or hostname at boot time. However, it may be necessary to change this manually if the virtual machine IP address changes.

To do this, execute the command below, replacing APPNAME with the directory holding the application and IP-ADDRESS with the new IP address or hostname:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/apps/APPNAME/bnconfig --machine_hostname IP-ADDRESS

How to configure the firewall?

By default, Bitnami virtual machines have ports 80, 443 and 22 open by default. The Bitnami Ruby Stack and Bitnami JRuby Stack virtual machines also have port 3000 open for development purposes by default.

To open a different port:

  • Log in to the server console.

  • Execute the following command, replacing the PORT placeholder with the number of the port to be opened:

     $ sudo ufw allow PORT
    

More information about modifying the firewall configuration is available on the Ubuntu community website.

How to close server ports?

By default, Bitnami virtual machines have ports 80, 443 and 22 open by default. The Bitnami Ruby Stack and Bitnami JRuby Stack virtual machines also have port 3000 open for development purposes by default.

To close an open port:

  • Log in to the server console.

  • Execute the following command, replacing the PORT placeholder with the number of the port to be closed:

     $ sudo ufw deny PORT
    

More information about modifying the firewall configuration is available on the Ubuntu community website.

How to enable the SSH server?

The SSH server is disabled by default in Bitnami virtual machines. However, some applications (like GitLab or Gitorious) require SSH access to import code repositories.

To enable the SSH server, execute the commands below at the server console:

$ sudo mv /etc/init/ssh.conf.back /etc/init/ssh.conf
$ sudo start ssh

To disable it, perform the same steps in reverse:

$ sudo stop ssh
$ sudo mv /etc/init/ssh.conf /etc/init/ssh.conf.back
IMPORTANT: Before enabling the SSH server, change the default password for security.

How to configure the SSH server to support key-based authentication?

NOTE: The steps in this section assume that the virtual machine's SSH server is enabled and running. Read instructions for enabling the SSH server.

To configure the SSH server to support key-based authentication, follow these steps:

  • Log in to the server console as the bitnami user.

  • Create a key pair, consisting of a public and private key, as shown below. Set a long passphrase when prompted.

     $ ssh-keygen
     Generating public/private rsa key pair.
     Enter file in which to save the key (/home/bitnami/.ssh/id_rsa):
     Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
     Enter same passphrase again:
     Your identification has been saved in /home/bitnami/.ssh/id_rsa.
     Your public key has been saved in /home/bitnami/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
     The key fingerprint is:
     XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX bitnami@linux
    

This command should create two files named id_rsa and id_rsa.pub in the /home/bitnami/.ssh directory.

  • Copy the private key file named id_rsa to a secure location. Do not share this private key file.

  • Transfer the contents of the public key file to the /home/bitnami/.ssh/authorized_keys file:

     $ cd /home/bitnami/.ssh
     $ cat id_rsa.pub >> /home/bitnami/.ssh/authorized_keys
    
  • Edit the /etc/ssh/sshd_config and uncomment (or add if not already present) the following lines:

     RSAAuthentication yes
     PubkeyAuthentication yes
    
  • In the same file, disable basic password authentication:

     ChallengeResponseAuthentication no
     PasswordAuthentication no
     UsePAM no
    
  • Restart the SSH server for the new configuration to take effect:

     $ sudo /etc/init.d/ssh force-reload
    

You can now use the private key file to connect to the virtual machine using SSH.

How to connect to the server through SSH?

NOTE: The steps in this section assume that the virtual machine's SSH server is enabled and running. Read instructions for enabling the SSH server.

If connecting with an SSH client, you must have the server's IP address and password for the bitnami user account. If you chose to configure key-based authentication, you must have the SSH private key for the bitnami user account in .ppk format (for Windows) or in .pem format (for Linux and Mac OS X).

Depending on your platform, follow the instructions below:

Using an SSH Key

Windows

The easiest way to log in to your server is with PuTTY, a free SSH client for Windows and UNIX platforms.

  • Download the PuTTY ZIP archive from its website.
  • Extract the contents to a folder on your desktop.
  • Double-click the putty.exe file to bring up the PuTTY configuration window.
  • Enter the host name or public IP address of your server into the "Host Name (or IP address)" field, as well as into the "Saved Sessions" field.
  • Click "Save" to save the new session so you can reuse it later. PuTTY configuration
  • In the "Connection -> SSH -> Auth" section, select the private key file (.ppk) for the server. PuTTY configuration
  • In the "Connection -> Data" section, enter the username bitnami into the "Auto-login username" field. PuTTY configuration
  • Go back to the "Session" section and save your changes by clicking the "Save" button.
  • Click the "Open" button to open an SSH session to the server.
  • PuTTY will first ask you to confirm the server's host key and add it to the cache. Go ahead and click "Yes" to this request (learn more). PuTTY connection

You should now be logged in to your server.

Linux and Mac OS X

Linux and Mac OS X come bundled with SSH clients by default.

  • Set the permissions for your private key file to 0600 using a command like the one below:

     $ chmod 600 KEYFILE
    
  • Open a new terminal.
  • Connect to the server using the following command:

      $ ssh -i KEYFILE bitnami@100.101.102.103
    

    Remember to replace KEYFILE in the previous commands with the path to your private key file (.pem), and 100.101.102.103 with the public IP address or hostname of your server.

  • Your SSH client might ask you to confirm the server's host key and add it to the cache before connecting. Accept this request by typing or selecting "Yes" (learn more).

You should now be logged in to your server.

Using a Password

Windows

The easiest way to log in to your server is with PuTTY, a free SSH client for Windows and UNIX platforms.

  • Download the PuTTY ZIP archive from its website.
  • Extract the contents to a folder on your desktop.
  • Double-click the putty.exe file to bring up the PuTTY configuration window.
  • Enter the IP address of your server into the "Host Name (or IP address)" field, as well as into the "Saved Sessions" field.
  • Click "Save" to save the new session so you can reuse it later. PuTTY configuration
  • In the "Connection -> Data" section, enter the username bitnami into the "Auto-login username" field. PuTTY configuration
  • Go back to the "Session" section and save your changes by clicking the "Save" button.
  • Click the "Open" button to open an SSH session to the server.
  • PuTTY will first ask you to confirm the server's host key and add it to the cache. Go ahead and click "Yes" to this request (learn more). PuTTY connection
  • Enter the SSH password when prompted.

You should now be logged in to your server.

Linux and Mac OS X

Linux and Mac OS X come bundled with SSH clients by default.

  • Open a new terminal.
  • Connect to the server using the following command:

      $ ssh bitnami@100.101.102.103
    

    Remember to replace 100.101.102.103 with the public IP address or hostname of your server.

  • Your SSH client might ask you to confirm the server's host key and add it to the cache before connecting. Accept this request by typing or selecting "Yes" (learn more).
  • Enter your SSH password when prompted.

You should now be logged in to your server.

How to change the keyboard layout?

Use the dpkg-reconfigure tool to change the keyboard layout, with the command below:

$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration

How to enable desktop access?

To allow desktop access for the bitnami user, follow these steps:

  • Install the ubuntu-desktop package:

     $ sudo apt-get update
     $ sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
    
  • Edit the /usr/share/lightdm/lightdm.conf.d/50-ubuntu.conf configuration file and add the following line at the end:

     greeter-show-manual-login=true
    
  • Adjust permissions of hidden files in the bitnami user's home directory:

     $ sudo chown bitnami:bitnami /home/
     $ sudo chown -R bitnami:bitnami /home/bitnami/.*
    
  • Restart the virtual machine.

You should see the login string on startup and should now be able to login with bitnami as the username.

How to install an FTP server?

IMPORTANT: For security reasons, it is preferable to avoid using an FTP server or opening the FTP port to copy files to the virtual machine. Instead, use SFTP or SCP to connect to the virtual machine and transfer files.

Some applications require an FTP connection to download and install modules. Most Bitnami virtual machines already include the vsftpd server configured for local access. These are the settings to use (remember to replace the PASSWORD placeholder with the correct password for the bitnami user account):

Hostname: 127.0.0.1
Username: bitnami
Password: PASSWORD
Connection method: FTP
Port: 21
FTP root directory: /opt/bitnami/apps/APPNAME/htdocs

If the virtual machine does not include the vsftpd server, install it by following these steps:

  • Install the package:

     $ sudo apt-get update
     $ sudo apt-get install vsftpd
    
  • For security reasons, modify the configuration file to only listen to requests originating from the local machine. Add the necessary line to the end of the /etc/vsftpd.conf configuration file with the following command:

     $ echo -e "write_enable=YES\nlisten_address=127.0.0.1" | sudo tee -a /etc/vsftpd.conf
    
  • Restart the FTP server:

     $ sudo restart vsftpd
    

How to upload files to the server with SFTP?

NOTE: Bitnami applications can be found in /opt/bitnami/apps.
NOTE: The steps in this section assume that the virtual machine's SSH server is enabled and running. Read instructions for enabling the SSH server.

The first step is to ensure that you have the server's IP address and password for the bitnami user account. If you chose to configure key-based authentication, you must have the SSH private key for the bitnami user account in .ppk format (for Windows) or in .pem format (for Linux and Mac OS X).

Once you have confirmed that you have the IP address and correct SSH credentials for your server, follow the instructions below depending on the platform you wish to use.

Although you can use any SFTP/SCP client to transfer files to your server, this guide documents FileZilla (Windows, Linux and Mac OS X), WinSCP (Windows) and Cyberduck (Mac OS X).

Using an SSH Key

Once you have your server's SSH key, choose your preferred application and follow the steps below to connect to the server using SFTP.

FileZilla
IMPORTANT: To use FileZilla, your server private key should be in PPK format.

Follow these steps:

  • Download and install FileZilla.
  • Launch FileZilla and use the "Edit -> Settings" command to bring up FileZilla's configuration settings.
  • Within the "Connection -> SFTP" section, use the "Add keyfile" command to select the private key file for the server. FileZilla will use this private key to log in to the server. FileZilla configuration
  • Use the "File -> Site Manager -> New Site" command to bring up the FileZilla Site Manager, where you can set up a connection to your server.
  • Enter your server host name and specify bitnami as the user name.
  • Select "SFTP" as the protocol and "Ask for password" as the logon type. FileZilla configuration
  • Use the "Connect" button to connect to the server and begin an SFTP session. You might need to accept the server key, by clicking "Yes" or "OK" to proceed.

You should now be logged into the /home/bitnami directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

If you have problems accessing your server, get extra information by use the "Edit -> Settings -> Debug" menu to activate FileZilla's debug log.

FileZilla debug log

WinSCP
IMPORTANT: To use WinSCP, your server private key should be in PPK format.

Follow these steps:

  • Download and install WinSCP.
  • Launch WinSCP and in the "Session" panel, select "SFTP" as the file protocol.
  • Enter your server host name and specify bitnami as the user name. WinSCP configuration
  • Click the "Advanced…" button and within the "SSH -> Authentication -> Authentication parameters" section, select the private key file for the server. WinSCP will use this private key to log in to the server. WinSCP configuration
  • From the "Session" panel, use the "Login" button to connect to the server and begin an SCP session.

You should now be logged into the /home/bitnami directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

If you need to upload files to a location where the bitnami user doesn't have write permissions, you have two options:

  • Once you have configured WinSCP as described above, click the "Advanced…" button and within the "Environment -> Shell" panel, select sudo su - as your shell. This will allow you to upload files using the administrator account. WinSCP configuration
  • Upload the files to the /home/bitnami directory as usual. Then, connect via SSH and move the files to the desired location with the sudo command, as shown below:

       $ sudo mv /home/bitnami/uploaded-file /path/to/desired/location/
    
Cyberduck
IMPORTANT: To use Cyberduck, your server private key should be in PEM format.

Follow these steps:

  • Select the "Open Connection" command and specify "SFTP" as the connection protocol. Cyberduck configuration

  • In the connection details panel, under the "More Options" section, enable the "Use Public Key Authentication" option and specify the path to the private key file for the server. Cyberduck configuration

  • Use the "Connect" button to connect to the server and begin an SFTP session.

You should now be logged into the /home/bitnami directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

Using a Password

Once you have your server's SSH credentials, choose your preferred application and follow the steps below to connect to the server using SFTP.

FileZilla

Follow these steps:

  • Download and install FileZilla.
  • Launch FileZilla and use the "File -> Site Manager -> New Site" command to bring up the FileZilla Site Manager, where you can set up a connection to your server.
  • Enter your server host name.
  • Select "SFTP" as the protocol and "Ask for password" as the logon type. Use bitnami as the server username and the password generated during the server deployment process. FileZilla configuration
  • Use the "Connect" button to connect to the server and begin an SFTP session. You might need to accept the server key, by clicking "Yes" or "OK" to proceed.

You should now be logged into the /home/bitnami directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

If you have problems accessing your server, get extra information by use the "Edit -> Settings -> Debug" menu to activate FileZilla's debug log.

FileZilla debug log

WinSCP

Follow these steps:

  • Download and install WinSCP.
  • Launch WinSCP and in the "Session" panel, select "SFTP" as the file protocol.
  • Enter your server host name and set bitnami as the server username. WinSCP configuration
  • From the "Session" panel, use the "Login" button to connect to the server and begin an SCP session. Enter the password when prompted. WinSCP configuration

You should now be logged into the /home/bitnami directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

Cyberduck

Follow these steps:

  • Select the "Open Connection" command and specify "SFTP" as the connection protocol. Cyberduck configuration

  • In the connection details panel, enter the server IP address, bitnami as the username, and the password generated during the deployment process. Cyberduck configuration

  • Use the "Connect" button to connect to the server and begin an SFTP session.

You should now be logged into the /home/bitnami directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

How to increase the available memory for the virtual machine?

Increase the RAM for a virtual machine through the "Settings" panel. Here's what it looks like for VirtualBox:

Machine configuration

Recent versions of Bitnami virtual machines include the PAE kernel, which allows you to increase assigned RAM memory to more than 4 GB. The optimal setting will also depend on the host machine's capabilities and the number of virtual machines running simultaneously.

TIP: It's good practice to share the RAM between the host machine and the virtual machine. For example, if the host machine has 2 GB RAM and you are only running one virtual machine, increase the RAM of the virtual machine to 1 GB. It is not advisable to increase it to more than this because this may result in the host machine running out of physical memory and switching to swap memory, which significantly decreases overall performance.

How to add a new virtual disk?

To create a new virtual disk and increase the disk space available on your virtual machine, follow these steps:

  • In the machine's "Settings", add a new SCSI disk drive and configure the disk size.

  • Start the virtual machine and log in.

  • At the console, run the following command to format the new disk:

     $ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb
    
  • Create a new directory to mount the disk:

     $ sudo mkdir /mnt/disk
    
  • Mount the new disk:

     $ echo "/dev/sdb /mnt/disk ext4 defaults 0 0" | sudo tee -a /etc/fstab
     $ sudo mount -a
    

Check if the new disk is available with the command below:

$ df -h

If you have a directory containing a large amount of data, you can now move it to the new hard drive and create a symbolic link. Here's an example of moving the Joomla data directory:

$ sudo mv /opt/bitnami/apps/joomla/data /mnt/disk/data
$ ln -s /mnt/disk/data /opt/bitnami/apps/joomla/data

How to install and configure Webmin?

Webmin is a web-based interface for system administration. Using any modern web browser, it enables management of user accounts, Apache, DNS, file sharing and much more.

The steps below walk you through the process of installing and configuring Webmin on a Bitnami virtual machine or server:

  • Log in at the machine console.

  • Download the latest stable version of Webmin.

  • Install dependencies and uncompress the tarball:

     $ sudo apt-get install perl5 libnet-ssleay-perl
     $ tar -xzvf webmin-*
     $ cd webmin-*
    
  • Run the installer and follow the installation steps. During the installation, you will be prompted for user credentials.

     $ sudo sh setup.sh
    
  • Open the default Webmin port of 10000 in the server firewall, as described in the FAQ.

Once Webmin is installed, access it with the credentials set during the installation process by browsing to http://SERVER-IP:10000.

To configure Webmin to manage the Bitnami servers:

  • Create the configuration file /etc/webmin/mysql/config for MySQL and fill it with the content below:

     date_subs=0
     max_text=1000
     perpage=25
     stop_cmd=/etc/init.d/bitnami stop mysql >/dev/null 2>&1
     mysqldump=/opt/bitnami/mysql/bin/mysqldump
     nodbi=0
     mysql_libs=/opt/bitnami/mysql/lib
     max_dbs=50
     start_cmd=/etc/init.d/bitnami start mysql >/dev/null 2>&1 &
     mysql_data=/var/lib/mysql
     mysqlimport=/opt/bitnami/mysql/bin/mysqlimport
     access=*: *
     style=0
     my_cnf=/opt/bitnami/mysql/my.cnf
     mysqlshow=/opt/bitnami/mysql/bin/mysqlshow
     mysql=/opt/bitnami/mysql/bin/mysql
     nopwd=0
     add_mode=1
     passwd_mode=0
     blob_mode=0
     mysqladmin=/opt/bitnami/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
    
  • Similarly, create the configuration file /etc/webmin/apache/config for Apache and fill it with the content below:

     link_dir=/opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/sites-enabled
     test_manual=0
     show_list=0
     mime_types=/opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/mime.types
     access_conf=/opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/access.conf
     auto_mods=1
     stop_cmd=/etc/init.d/bitnami stop apache
     virt_file=/opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/sites-available
     test_apachectl=1
     max_servers=100
     srm_conf=/opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/srm.conf
     httpd_dir=/opt/bitnami/apache2
     start_cmd=/etc/init.d/bitnami start apache
     show_order=0
     test_always=0
     httpd_conf=/opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/httpd.conf
     defines_file=/opt/bitnami/apache2/bin/envvars
     apachectl_path=/opt/bitnami/apache2/bin/apachectl
     show_names=0
     test_config=1
     apply_cmd=/opt/bitnami/apache2/bin/apachectl graceful
     httpd_path=/opt/bitnami/apache2/bin/httpd
    
  • Similarly, create the configuration file /etc/webmin/postgresql/config for PostgreSQL (if you have it installed) and fill it with the content below:

     simple_sched=0
     sameunix=1
     date_subs=0
     max_text=1000
     perpage=25
     stop_cmd=/opt/bitnami/postgresql/scripts/ctl.sh stop
     pid_file=/opt/bitnami/postgresql/data/postmaster.pid
     hba_conf=/opt/bitnami/postgresql/data/pg_hba.conf
     psql=/opt/bitnami/postgresql/bin/psql
     plib=
     nodbi=1
     max_dbs=50
     start_cmd=/opt/bitnami/postgresql/scripts/ctl.sh start
     pass=
     dump_cmd=/opt/bitnami/postgresql/bin/pg_dump
     access=*: *
     webmin_subs=0
     style=0
     rstr_cmd=/opt/bitnami/postgresql/bin/pg_restore
     access_own=0
     basedb=template1
     login=postgres
     add_mode=1
     blob_mode=0
    
  • Browse to the Webmin application, log in and click the "Refresh Modules" button. You should now see the "Apache Webserver", "PostgreSQL Database Server" and "MySQL Database Server" listed in the "Servers" tab.

Webmin

How to install VirtualBox Guest Additions on Bitnami virtual machines?

To install VirtualBox Guest Additions, follow these steps:

  • Stop the virtual machine.

  • Edit the virtual machine settings and from the "System" tab, add a new CD-ROM device to the machine.

  • Restart the virtual machine.

  • Check the current kernel version:

     $ uname -a
    
  • Install some needed dependencies as shown below. Remember to replace the VERSION placeholder with the kernel version from the previous command. packages with the proper kernel_version shown by the previous command:

     $ sudo apt-get -y install dkms build-essential linux-headers-VERSION
    
  • Restart the virtual machine:

     $ sudo reboot
    
  • From the virtual machine menu, select the "Devices -> CD/DVD Devices -> Choose a virtual CD/DVD disk file" option. Select the VBoxGuestAdditions.iso file. This action simulates inserting a CD-ROM that includes the tools.

    The VBoxGuestAdditions.iso file is usually located in the /usr/share/virtualbox/ directory on Linux, in the C:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox directory on Windows and the Contents/MacOS directory of the VirtualBox package on Mac OS X.

  • Mount the CD-ROM and install the VirtualBox Guest Additions:

     $ sudo mkdir /mnt/cdrom
     $ sudo mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
     $ cd /mnt/cdrom
     $ sudo sh ./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run --nox11
    

    You can safely ignore the error below if it appears during the installation process:

     Installing the Window System drivers ...fail!
     (Could not find the X.Org or XFree86 Window System.) 
    
  • Once the process is complete, check that the output resembles that shown below. If it does, the VirtualBox Guest Additions have been successfully installed.

     Verifying archive integrity... All good.
     Uncompressing VirtualBox 4.1.22 Guest Additions for Linux.........
     VirtualBox Guest Additions installer
     Removing existing VirtualBox DKMS kernel modules ...done.
     Removing existing VirtualBox non-DKMS kernel modules ...done.
     Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel modules ...done.
     Doing non-kernel setup of the Guest Additions ...done.
    

How to use Bitnami stacks with headless VirtualBox?

NOTE: The steps below require the VMDK version of the Bitnami virtual machine.

Bitnami stacks can also be used with VirtualBox running in headless mode. To do this, follow the steps below on your VirtualBox host:

  • Convert the VMDK file for the Bitnami stack into a VirtualBox Disk Image (VDI) file:

     $ VBoxManage clonehd --format VDI bitnami-APP-VERSION.vmdk myserver.vdi
    
  • Create and register a new virtual machine.

     $ VBoxManage createvm --name "My Server" --ostype "Ubuntu_64" --register
    

    It is important to choose the correct operating system type when doing this. For a complete list of available operating system types, use the command below:

     $ VBoxManage list ostypes
    
  • Add a storage device and attach the VDI file created earlier to it.

     $ VBoxManage storagectl "My Server" --name "SATA Controller" --add sata --controller IntelAHCI
     $ VBoxManage storageattach "My Server" --storagectl "SATA Controller" --port 0 --device 0 --type hdd --medium myserver.vdi
    
  • Define other characteristics of the virtual machine, such as the boot device, available RAM and network interfaces. The commands below are illustrative only and will need to be modified for your specific hardware devices. For more information on how to configure your virtual machine with VBoxManage, please refer to the VirtualBox manual.

     $ VBoxManage modifyvm "My Server" --ioapic on 
     $ VBoxManage modifyvm "My Server" --boot1 disk --boot3 none --boot4 none 
     $ VBoxManage modifyvm "My Server" --memory 512 --vram 64 
     $ VBoxManage modifyvm "My Server" --nic1  bridged --bridgeadapter1 "11b/g Wireless Adapter"
    
  • Start the virtual machine in headless mode:

     $ VBoxHeadless --startvm "My Server"
    

The virtual machine will be accessible using RDP. You can use any RDP viewer to connect and work with the virtual machine. For more information on available RDP viewers for your host platform and how to connect, refer to the VirtualBox manual.

TIP: When connecting to your headless VirtualBox machine with an RDP client, remember to use the IP address of the host system and not the VirtualBox machine.

Does Bitnami collect any data from deployed Bitnami stacks?

Yes. Bitnami cloud images and virtual machines include a small agent that starts on boot and collects a few pieces of information about the system. For users of Bitnami Virtual Machine Images, Cloud Templates, and Container Images we may also collect information from downloaded, pulled or deployed images or instances, such as the instance type, IP address and operating system version or the Bitnami account used to launch the image in order to improve our product offerings.

We encourage you to leave this tracking on, but if you would like to turn it off, you can comment out or delete the following line in the /etc/crontab file:

X * * * * bitnami cd /opt/bitnami/stats && ./agent.bin --run -D

(where X is a random number for each instance generated at the boot time)

Our complete privacy policy is available online. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us at hello@bitnami.com.

What does the SSH warning 'REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED' mean?

This warning is normal when trying to connect to the same IP address but a different machine - for instance, when you assign the same static IP address to another server. You can fix the problem by removing the IP address that you are trying to connect to from your ~/.ssh/known_hosts file.

If you use PuTTY, the SSH key mismatch warning looks like the image below:

SSH warning

In this case, click "Yes" if you know the reason for the key mismatch (IP address reassigned to another server, machine replaced, and so on).