Bitnami Magento Installer

NOTE: Before running the commands shown on this page, you should load the Bitnami stack environment by executing the installdir/use_APPNAME script (Linux and Mac OS X) or by clicking the shortcut in the Start Menu under "Start -> Bitnami APPNAME Stack -> Application console" (Windows). Learn more.
NOTE: When running the commands shown on this page, replace the installdir placeholder with the full installation directory for your Bitnami stack.

Description

Magento is a powerful open source e-Commerce platform. Its rich feature set includes loyalty programs, product categorization, shopper filtering, promotion rules, and much more.

Try the OS X VM for Mac (beta version). This new product makes it really easy to run this application on your Mac with just a few clicks. No VirtualBox needed! Find here further information on this.

First steps with the Bitnami Magento Stack

Welcome to your new Bitnami application! Here are a few questions (and answers!) you might need when first starting with your application.

What are the system requirements?

Before you download and install your application, check that your system meets these requirements.

How do I install the Bitnami Magento Stack?

Windows, OS X and Linux installer
  • Download the executable file for the Bitnami Magento Stack from the Bitnami website.

  • Run the downloaded file:

    • On Linux, give the installer executable permissions and run the installation file in the console.
    • On other platforms, double-click the installer and follow the instructions shown.

Check the FAQ instructions on how to download and install a Bitnami Stack for more details.

The application will be installed to the following default directories:

Operating System Directory
Windows C:\Bitnami\APPNAME-VERSION
Mac OS X /Applications/APPNAME-VERSION
Linux /opt/APPNAME-VERSION (running as root user)
OS X VM
  • Download the OS X VM file for the Bitnami Magento Stack from the Bitnami website.
  • Begin the installation process by double-clicking the image file and dragging the WordPress OS X VM icon to the Applications folder.
  • Launch the VM by double-clicking the icon in the Applications folder.

What credentials do I need?

You need application credentials, consisting of a username and password. These credentials allow you to log in to your new Bitnami application.

What is the administrator username set for me to log in to the application for the first time?

  • For Windows, Linux and OS X installers, the username was configured by you when you first installed the application.
  • For OS X VMs, the username can be obtained by clicking the Bitnami badge at the bottom right corner of the application welcome page.

What is the administrator password?

  • For Windows, Linux and OS X installers, the password was configured by you when you first installed the application.
  • For OS X VMs, the password can be obtained by clicking the Bitnami badge at the bottom right corner of the application welcome page.

How to start or stop the services?

Linux

Bitnami native installers include a graphical tool to manage services. This tool is named manager-linux-x64.run on Linux and is located in the installation directory. To use this tool, double-click the file and then use the graphical interface to start, stop or restart services. Server log messages can be checked in the "Server Events" tab.

Management tool

The native installer also includes a command-line script to start, stop and restart applications, named ctlscript.sh. This script can be found in the installation directory and accepts the options start, stop, restart, and status. To use it, log in to the server console and execute it following the examples below:

  • Call it without any service names to start all services:

      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
  • Use it to restart a specific service only by passing the service name as argument - for example, mysql, postgresql or apache:

      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart mysql
      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart postgresql
      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart apache
    
  • Obtain current status of all services:

      $ installdir/ctlscript.sh status
    

The list of available services varies depending on the required components for each application.

Mac OS X

Bitnami native installers include a graphical tool to manage services. This tool is named manager-osx on Mac OS X and is located in the installation directory. To use this tool, double-click the file and then use the graphical interface to start, stop or restart services. Server log messages can be checked in the "Server Events" tab.

Management tool

The native installer also includes a command-line script to start, stop and restart applications, named ctlscript.sh. This script can be found in the installation directory and accepts the options start, stop, restart, and status. To use it, log in to the server console and execute it following the examples below:

  • Call it without any service names to start all services:

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
  • Use it to restart a specific service only by passing the service name as argument - for example, mysql or apache:

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart mysql
     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart apache
    
  • Obtain current status of all services:

     $ installdir/ctlscript.sh status
    

The list of available services varies depending on the required components for each application.

NOTE: If you are using the stack manager for Mac OS X-VM, please check the following blog post to learn how to manage services from its graphical tool.

Windows

Bitnami native installers include a graphical tool to manage services. This tool is named manager-windows.exe on Windows and is located in the installation directory. To use this tool, double-click the file and then use the graphical interface to start, stop or restart services. Server log messages can be checked in the "Server Events" tab.

Management tool

The Windows native installer creates shortcuts to start and stop services created in the Start Menu, under "Programs -> Bitnami APPNAME Stack -> Bitnami Service". Servers can also be managed from the Windows "Services" control panel. Services are named using the format APPNAMESERVICENAME, where APPNAME is a placeholder for the application name and SERVICENAME is a placeholder for the service name. For example, the native installer for the Bitnami WordPress Stack installs services named wordpressApache and wordpressMySQL.

These services will be automatically started during boot. To modify this behaviour, refer to the section on disabling services on Windows.

How to access the administration panel?

Access the administration panel by browsing to http://localhost/admin.

Using the Magento CLI

The Bitnami Magento Stack uses the file system ownership for one user approach.

In order to solve permissions and ownership issues, Bitnami has created the magento-cli tool. This, can replace the regular magento Command Line Interface. To use it, you just need to execute a Magento command as shown below. Remember to replace the YOUR_MAGENTO_COMMAND placeholder with the command to be executed.

$ cd installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/
$ sudo bin/magento-cli YOUR_MAGENTO_COMMAND

How to enable multi-site support?

NOTE: This configuration guide assumes that the Apache server is using port 80, and that the Magento URL has been moved to the root URL. If Magento is not at the root URL, move it as explained here.

Multi-store support in Magento is an important feature. This guide will attempt to set up domain1.com and domain2.com, both sharing the same catalog. You can also configure subdomains if you prefer, and use a different catalog for each store.

Add new categories

To begin with, add new Categories. You can add Subcategories or Root Categories, depending on whether you want to share the catalog or not. In this case, create two Subcategories, "Shoes" and "Clothes".

To do so, go to the "Products -> Categories -> Add Subcategory" menu. Use the name you want, set "Is Active" to "Yes" in the "General Information" tab, and "Is Anchor" to "Yes" in the "Display Settings" tab. #### Configure the stores

The next step is to create the websites. To do so, go to the "Stores -> All Stores -> Create Website" menu. In the "Name" field, enter the domain of your new site and in the "Code" field, the code Magento will use to call this site. Here's an example:

Magento store configuration

Once the websites have been created, create the store corresponding to each website by clicking the "Create Store" button in the "Stores -> All Stores -> Create Store" menu. "Website" is the website to which this store will be associated, "Name" is the same as "Website", and "Root Category" is the root category that will be used for this store.

Magento store view

Finally, create the store view, which is the interface that the customer will access on the front-end. Click the "Create Store View" button in the "Stores -> All Stores" menu. Set the "Store" field to the store which this view will be associated with. Enter the name of this store view, the code for this store view and use the "Status" field to enable the store view and make it accessible from the front-end.

Magento store view

After the store has been created, go to the "System -> Configuration -> General" menu and make sure that "Default Config" is selected under "Current Configuration Scope". Select the Web section and set "Auto-redirect to Base URL" to "No" under the "URL Options" menu.

Magento store configuration

Configure the "Unsecure Base URL" and "Secure Base URL" for your newly created stores. Before setting their respective base URLs, ensure that the configuration scope is set to the domain1.com website to define which site you are working on.

Magento store configuration

Then, modify the base URLs for both "Unsecure" and "Secure" scenarios with the corresponding domain name by unchecking the "Use default [STORE VIEW]" checkbox . Save the configuration.

Magento store configuration

Magento store configuration

Repeat the steps above for domain2.com.

Configure the Apache server

The next step is to configure Apache to use Virtual Hosts and redirect depending on the domain.

Add the following line to include the Magento configuration file for Virtual Hosts in the installdir/apache2/conf/bitnami/bitnami-apps-vhosts.conf file:

...
Include "installdir/apps/magento/conf/httpd-vhosts.conf"
...

Add the new domains to the VirtualHosts, into the ServerAlias directive, in the installdir/apps/magento/conf/httpd-vhosts.conf file

<VirtualHost *:80>
  ServerName yourdomain.com
  ServerAlias www.yourdomain.com domain1.com domain2.com
  DocumentRoot "installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/"
  Include "installdir/apps/magento/conf/httpd-app.conf"
</VirtualHost>

Add the following lines at the end of the installdir/apps/magento/conf/htaccess.conf file to redirect the request depending on the domain.

...
SetEnvIf Host www\.domain1\.com MAGE_RUN_CODE=domain1_com
SetEnvIf Host www\.domain1\.com MAGE_RUN_TYPE=website
SetEnvIf Host ^domain1\.com MAGE_RUN_CODE=domain1_com
SetEnvIf Host ^domain1\.com MAGE_RUN_TYPE=website

SetEnvIf Host www\.domain2\.com MAGE_RUN_CODE=domain2_com
SetEnvIf Host www\.domain2\.com MAGE_RUN_TYPE=website
SetEnvIf Host ^domain2\.com MAGE_RUN_CODE=domain2_com
SetEnvIf Host ^domain2\.com MAGE_RUN_TYPE=website

Here, MAGE_RUN_CODE is the code provided when configuring the New Website.

Restart the Apache server to load the new configuration.

$ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart apache

You should now have different stores depending on the domain used.

How to install an extension using Composer

Before you can install any extension in Magento 2 you need to create a Magento Marketplace account. Then you can access you keys under the Access Keys section.

Once you have your Magento Marketplace keys ready, proceed to install the extension:

$ sudo composer require mailchimp/mc-magento2

The system will ask you for your Marketplace keys and proceed to download the extension.

Once this process is complete, update your modules as shown below:

$ bin/magento-cli setup:upgrade

Some specific extensions may require some additional steps, so it is always recommended to carefully check the installation instructions of the extension.

How to configure PHP-FPM options?

To override any of the PHP configuration options (eg. memory_limit, max_execution_time), set these options in the installdir/php/etc/php.ini file and in the installdir/apps/APPNAME/conf/php-fpm/php-settings.conf file.

For example, to increase the PHP memory limit, edit the installdir/APPNAME/conf/php-fpm/php-settings.conf file and set the corresponding variable as follows. Replace the NEW_LIMIT placeholder with the new memory limit you wish to use.

php_value[memory_limit]=NEW_LIMIT

Then, also modify the installdir/php/etc/php.ini file and set the memory_limit variable to a new value, as shown below:

memory_limit=NEW_LIMIT

Restart Apache and PHP-FPM for the changes to take effect:

$ installdir/ctlscript.sh restart apache
$ installdir/ctlscript.sh restart php-fpm

How to create a full backup of Magento?

The Bitnami Magento Stack is self-contained and the simplest option for performing a backup is to copy or compress the Bitnami stack installation directory. To do so in a safe manner, you will need to stop all servers, so this method may not be appropriate if you have people accessing the application continuously.

NOTE: If you want to create only a database backup, refer to these instructions for MySQL and PostgreSQL.

Backup on Linux and Mac OS X

Follow these steps:

  • Change to the directory in which you wish to save your backup.

     $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers.

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh stop
    
  • Create a compressed file with the stack contents.

     $ sudo tar -pczvf application-backup.tar.gz installdir
    
  • Start all servers.

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
  • Download or transfer the application-backup.tar.gz file to a safe location.

You should now download or transfer the application-backup.tar.gz file to a safe location.

Backup on Windows

Follow these steps:

  • Stop all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

  • Create a compressed file with the stack contents. You can use a graphical tool like 7-Zip or WinZip or just right-click the folder, click "Send to", and select the "Compressed (zipped) folder" option.

  • Download or transfer the compressed file to a safe location.

  • Start all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

Restore on Linux and Mac OS X

Follow these steps:

  • Change to the directory containing your backup:

    $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers.

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh stop
    
  • Move the current stack to a different location:

    $ sudo mv installdir /tmp/bitnami-backup
    
  • Uncompress the backup file to the original directory:

    $ sudo tar -pxzvf application-backup.tar.gz -C /
    
  • Start all servers.

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
IMPORTANT: When restoring, remember to maintain the original permissions for the files and folders. For example, if you originally installed the stack as the root user on Linux, make sure that the restored files are owned by root as well.

Restore on Windows

  • Change to the directory containing your backup:

       $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

  • Uninstall the previous services by executing the following command:

        $ serviceinstall.bat
    
  • Create a safe folder named Backups in the desktop and move the current stack to it. Remember to replace PATH with the right location of your folder:

        $ move installdir \PATH\Backups
    
  • Uncompress the backup file using a tool like 7-Zip or Winzip or just double-click the .zip file to uncompress it, and move it to the original directory.
  • Install services by running the following commands from an elevated command prompt:

      $ cd installdir
      $ serviceinstall.bat INSTALL
    
  • Start all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

How to upgrade Magento?

It is strongly recommended to create a backup before starting the update process. If you have important data, create and try to restore a backup to ensure that everything works properly.

You can upgrade the application only without modifying any other stack components, as described below:

  • Visit the Magento Marketplace and obtain your public/private access key pair using the "My Account -> Connect -> Developers -> Secure Keys" section. If you don't have a Magento Marketplace account, create one here.

    Magento upgrade

  • Log in to Magento's administration panel and navigate to the "System -> Web Setup Wizard -> System Configuration" section.

  • Enter the public and private keys and click "Save Config" to save the changes.

    Magento upgrade

  • Navigate to the "System -> Web Setup Wizard -> System Upgrade" section.

  • The upgrade process should begin. Follow the prompts to complete the upgrade.

For more information, refer to the Magento documentation.

How to create an SSL certificate?

OpenSSL is required to create an SSL certificate. A certificate request can then be sent to a certificate authority (CA) to get it signed into a certificate, or if you have your own certificate authority, you may sign it yourself, or you can use a self-signed certificate (because you just want a test certificate or because you are setting up your own CA).

Follow the steps below for your platform.

Linux and Mac OS X

NOTE: OpenSSL will typically already be installed on Linux and Mac OS X. If not installed, install it manually using your operating system's package manager.

Follow the steps below:

  • Generate a new private key:

     $ sudo openssl genrsa -out installdir/apache2/conf/server.key 2048
    
  • Create a certificate:

     $ sudo openssl req -new -key installdir/apache2/conf/server.key -out installdir/apache2/conf/cert.csr
    
    IMPORTANT: Enter the server domain name when the above command asks for the "Common Name".
  • Send cert.csr to the certificate authority. When the certificate authority completes their checks (and probably received payment from you), they will hand over your new certificate to you.

  • Until the certificate is received, create a temporary self-signed certificate:

     $ sudo openssl x509 -in installdir/apache2/conf/cert.csr -out installdir/apache2/conf/server.crt -req -signkey installdir/apache2/conf/server.key -days 365
    
  • Back up your private key in a safe location after generating a password-protected version as follows:

     $ sudo openssl rsa -des3 -in installdir/apache2/conf/server.key -out privkey.pem
    

    Note that if you use this encrypted key in the Apache configuration file, it will be necessary to enter the password manually every time Apache starts. Regenerate the key without password protection from this file as follows:

     $ sudo openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out installdir/apache2/conf/server.key
    

Windows

NOTE: OpenSSL is not typically installed on Windows. Before following the steps below, download and install a binary distribution of OpenSSL.

Follow the steps below once OpenSSL is installed:

  • Set the OPENSSL_CONF environment variable to the location of your OpenSSL configuration file. Typically, this file is located in the bin/ subdirectory of your OpenSSL installation directory. Replace the OPENSSL-DIRECTORY placeholder in the command below with the correct location.

     $ set OPENSSL_CONF=C:\OPENSSL-DIRECTORY\bin\openssl.cfg
    
  • Change to the bin/ sub-directory of the OpenSSL installation directory. Replace the OPENSSL-DIRECTORY placeholder in the command below with the correct location.

     $ cd C:\OPENSSL-DIRECTORY\bin
    
  • Generate a new private key:

     $ openssl genrsa -out installdir/apache2/conf/server.key 2048
    
  • Create a certificate:

     $ openssl req -new -key installdir/apache2/conf/server.key -out installdir/apache2/conf/cert.csr
    
    IMPORTANT: Enter the server domain name when the above command asks for the "Common Name".
  • Send cert.csr to the certificate authority. When the certificate authority completes their checks (and probably received payment from you), they will hand over your new certificate to you.

  • Until the certificate is received, create a temporary self-signed certificate:

     $ openssl x509 -in installdir/apache2/conf/cert.csr -out installdir/apache2/conf/server.crt -req -signkey installdir/apache2/conf/server.key -days 365
    
  • Back up your private key in a safe location after generating a password-protected version as follows:

     $ openssl rsa -des3 -in installdir/apache2/conf/server.key -out privkey.pem
    

    Note that if you use this encrypted key in the Apache configuration file, it will be necessary to enter the password manually every time Apache starts. Regenerate the key without password protection from this file as follows:

     $ openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out installdir/apache2/conf/server.key
    

Find more information about certificates at http://www.openssl.org.

How to enable HTTPS support with SSL certificates?

TIP: If you wish to use a Let's Encrypt certificate, you will find specific instructions for enabling HTTPS support with Let's Encrypt SSL certificates in our Let's Encrypt guide.
NOTE: The steps below assume that you are using a custom domain name and that you have already configured the custom domain name to point to your cloud server.

Bitnami images come with SSL support already pre-configured and with a dummy certificate in place. Although this dummy certificate is fine for testing and development purposes, you will usually want to use a valid SSL certificate for production use. You can either generate this on your own (explained here) or you can purchase one from a commercial certificate authority.

Once you obtain the certificate and certificate key files, you will need to update your server to use them. Follow these steps to activate SSL support:

  • Use the table below to identify the correct locations for your certificate and configuration files.

    Variable Value
    Current application URL https://[custom-domain]/
      Example: https://my-domain.com/ or https://my-domain.com/appname
    Apache configuration file installdir/apache2/conf/bitnami/bitnami.conf
    Certificate file installdir/apache2/conf/server.crt
    Certificate key file installdir/apache2/conf/server.key
    CA certificate bundle file (if present) installdir/apache2/conf/server-ca.crt
  • Copy your SSL certificate and certificate key file to the specified locations.

    NOTE: If you use different names for your certificate and key files, you should reconfigure the SSLCertificateFile and SSLCertificateKeyFile directives in the corresponding Apache configuration file to reflect the correct file names.
  • If your certificate authority has also provided you with a PEM-encoded Certificate Authority (CA) bundle, you must copy it to the correct location in the previous table. Then, modify the Apache configuration file to include the following line below the SSLCertificateKeyFile directive. Choose the correct directive based on your scenario and Apache version:

    Variable Value
    Apache configuration file installdir/apache2/conf/bitnami/bitnami.conf
    Directive to include (Apache v2.4.8+) SSLCACertificateFile "installdir/apache2/conf/server-ca.crt"
    Directive to include (Apache < v2.4.8) SSLCertificateChainFile "installdir/apache2/conf/server-ca.crt"
    NOTE: If you use a different name for your CA certificate bundle, you should reconfigure the SSLCertificateChainFile or SSLCACertificateFile directives in the corresponding Apache configuration file to reflect the correct file name.
  • Once you have copied all the server certificate files, you may make them readable by the root user only with the following commands:

     $ sudo chown root:root installdir/apache2/conf/server*
    
     $ sudo chmod 600 installdir/apache2/conf/server*
    
  • Open port 443 in the server firewall. Refer to the FAQ for more information.

  • Restart the Apache server.

You should now be able to access your application using an HTTPS URL.

How to force HTTPS redirection with Apache?

Add the following lines in the default Apache virtual host configuration file at installdir/apache2/conf/bitnami/bitnami.conf, inside the default VirtualHost directive:

<VirtualHost _default_:80>
  DocumentRoot "installdir/apache2/htdocs"
  RewriteEngine On
  RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
  RewriteRule ^/(.*) https://%{SERVER_NAME}/$1 [R,L]
  ...
</VirtualHost>

After modifying the Apache configuration files:

  • Open port 443 in the server firewall. Refer to the FAQ for more information.

  • Restart Apache to apply the changes.

How to debug Apache errors?

Once Apache starts, it will create two log files at installdir/apache2/logs/access_log and installdir/apache2/logs/error_log respectively.

  • The access_log file is used to track client requests. When a client requests a document from the server, Apache records several parameters associated with the request in this file, such as: the IP address of the client, the document requested, the HTTP status code, and the current time.

  • The error_log file is used to record important events. This file includes error messages, startup messages, and any other significant events in the life cycle of the server. This is the first place to look when you run into a problem when using Apache.

If no error is found, you will see a message similar to:

Syntax OK

Updating the IP address or hostname

Magento requires updating the IP address/domain name if the machine IP address/domain name changes. The bnconfig tool also has an option which updates the IP address, called --machine_hostname (use --help to check if that option is available for your application). Note that this tool changes the URL to http://NEW_DOMAIN/magento.

$ sudo installdir/apps/magento/bnconfig --machine_hostname NEW_DOMAIN

If you have configured your machine to use a static domain name or IP address, you should rename or remove the installdir/apps/magento/bnconfig file.

$ sudo mv installdir/apps/magento/bnconfig installdir/apps/magento/bnconfig.disabled
NOTE: Be sure that your domain is propagated. Otherwise, this will not work. You can verify the new DNS record by using the Global DNS Propagation Checker and entering your domain name into the search field.

You can also change your hostname by modifying it in your hosts file. Enter the new hostname using your preferred editor.

$ sudo nano /etc/hosts
  • Add a new line with the IP address and the new hostname. Here's an example. Remember to replace the IP-ADDRESS and DOMAIN placeholders with the correct IP address and domain name.

    IP-ADDRESS DOMAIN

How to find the MySQL database credentials?

How to connect to the MySQL database?

You can connect to the MySQL database from the same computer where it is installed with the mysql client tool.

$ mysql -u root -p

You will be prompted to enter the root user password. This is the same as the application password.

How to debug errors in your database?

The main log file is created at installdir/mysql/data/mysqld.log on the MySQL database server host.

How to change the MySQL root password?

You can modify the MySQL password using the following command at the shell prompt. Replace the NEW_PASSWORD placeholder with the actual password you wish to set.

$ installdir/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -p -u root password NEW_PASSWORD

How to reset the MySQL root password?

If you don't remember your MySQL root password, you can follow the steps below to reset it to a new value:

  • Create a file in /home/bitnami/mysql-init with the content shown below (replace NEW_PASSWORD with the password you wish to use):

     UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('NEW_PASSWORD') WHERE User='root';
     FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    

    If your stack ships MySQL v5.7.x, use the following content instead of that shown above:

     UPDATE mysql.user SET authentication_string=PASSWORD('NEW_PASSWORD') WHERE User='root';
     FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    
    TIP: Check the MySQL version with the command installdir/mysql/bin/mysqladmin --version or installdir/mysql/bin/mysqld --version.
  • Stop the MySQL server:

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh stop mysql
    
  • Start MySQL with the following command:

     $ sudo installdir/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --pid-file=installdir/mysql/data/mysqld.pid --datadir=installdir/mysql/data --init-file=/home/bitnami/mysql-init 2> /dev/null &
    
  • Restart the MySQL server:

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart mysql
    
  • Remove the script:

     $ rm /home/bitnami/mysql-init
    

How to change the MySQL root password in Windows?

You can modify the MySQL password using the following command at the shell prompt. Replace the NEW_PASSWORD placeholder with the actual password you wish to set.

installdir\mysql\bin\mysqladmin.exe -p -u root password NEW_PASSWORD

How to reset the MySQL root password in Windows?

If you don't remember your MySQL root password, you can follow the steps below to reset it to a new value:

  • Stop the MySQL server using the graphic manager tool. Refer to the how to start or stop the services section.
  • Check the MySQL version:

    installdir\mysql\bin\mysqladmin.exe –version

  • Create a file named mysql-init.txt with the content shown below depending on your MySQL version (replace NEW_PASSWORD with the password you wish to use):
    • MySQL 5.6.x or earlier:

       UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('NEW_PASSWORD') 
       WHERE User='root';
       FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
      
    • MySQL 5.7.x or later:

       ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'NEW_PASSWORD'; 
      
  • Start MySQL server with the following command. Remember to replace PATH with the location in which you have saved the mysql-init.txt file:

     installdir " installdir\mysql\bin\mysqld.exe" --defaults-file=" installdir\mysql\my.ini" --init-file="\PATH\mysql-init.txt" --console
    
    • The --init file option is used by the server for executing the content of the mysql-init.txt file at startup, it will change each root account password.
    • The --defaults-file option is specified since you have installed MySQL using the Bitnami installer.
    • The --console option (optional) has been added in order to show the server output at the console window rather than in the log file.
  • After some minutes, hit Ctrl-C to force the shutdown.
  • Restart the MySQL server from the graphic manager tool.
  • After the server has restarted successfully, delete the mysql-init.txt file.

How to access phpMyAdmin?

You should be able to access phpMyAdmin directly, by browsing to http://127.0.0.1/phpmyadmin.

The username is root for phpMyAdmin, and the password is the one specified by you during the installation process.

How to modify PHP settings for Apache?

The PHP configuration file allows you to configure the modules enabled, the email settings or the size of the upload files. It is located at installdir/php/etc/php.ini.

For example, to modify the default upload limit for PHP, update the PHP configuration file following these instructions.

After modifying the PHP configuration file, restart both Apache and PHP-FPM for the changes to take effect:

$ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart apache
$ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart php-fpm

How to modify the allowed limit for uploaded files in Apache?

Modify the following options in the installdir/php/etc/php.ini file to increase the allowed size for uploads:

; Maximum size of POST data that PHP will accept.
post_max_size = 16M

; Maximum allowed size for uploaded files.
upload_max_filesize = 16M

Restart PHP-FPM and Apache for the changes to take effect.

$ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart apache
$ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart php-fpm    

How to access the Magento administration panel?

The Magento administration panel is available at the URL http://localhost/admin by default.

How to connect to the Magento API (REST, SOAP)?

The Magento API is available at the URL http://localhost/magento/index.php/api/ by default.

How to create a backup of Magento using the admin interface?

To create a backup of Magento, follow these steps:

  • Browse to Magento's administration panel.

  • Navigate to the "System -> Tools > Backups" menu.

  • Find the three orange buttons near the top right corner. These perform the following functions:

    • System Backup will create a .tgz file with the entire source code of your Magento installation and your database. For most cases, this is the recommended backup option and the most complete. It may take several minutes.

    • Database and Media Backup will create a .tgz file with your Magento database and the contents of the media directory. Take care that this backup does not add other assets like theme files.

    • Database Backup will only create a .sql.gz file with the database of your Magento installation.

You may also put your Magento store in maintenance mode while creating the backup.

Magento backup

How to restore a database backup of Magento?

If you have a database backup file created using the admin interface, you can import and restore it when you need to. Two options are available when importing your database.

Using phpMyAdmin

NOTE: phpMyAdmin only allows upload of an 80MB database file or less. If your database file is greater than 80MB, use the command line instead.
  • Browse to phpMyAdmin and login with your username and password.
  • Navigate to Magento's database.
  • Use the "Import" tab and select your .sql.gz file.
  • Click the "Go" button.

This might take a few minutes. Once done, you will see Magento's tables in the database.

Using the command line

  • Navigate to your Magento installation directory using the server console.
  • Make sure that the database backup file is already present on the machine.
  • Enter the following command to import your database. Note that you must change the database name bitnami_magento if your database has a different name.

     $ gunzip > /path/to/database/file/magento.sql.gz | mysql -u root -p bitnami_magento
    

How to configure Magento modes?

Magento works in different modes. The Bitnami Magento Stack enables "default" mode. These are the modes availables:

  • Default: Enables you to deploy the Magento application on a single server without changing any settings. However, default mode is not optimized for production.

  • Developer: Intended for development only. It disables static view file caching, enables enhanced debugging and verbose loggind, which results in a slower performance.

  • Production: Intended for deployment on a production system. Exceptions are not displayed to the user, exceptions are written to logs only, and static view files are served from cache only. New or updated files are not written to the file system.

Find more details about modes in Magento's official documentation.

In order to display the current mode, run the following command:

$ sudo installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/bin/magento-cli deploy:mode:show

A message similar to the following will appear:

Current application mode: default.

To change to another mode, run this command replacing MODE with the "default", "developer" or "production"

$ sudo installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/bin/magento-cli deploy:mode:set MODE

Here's an example that sets Magento to production mode:

$ sudo installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/bin/magento-cli deploy:mode:set production

A message similar to the following will appear:

Enabled maintenance mode
Starting compilation

If changing from production mode to developer mode, delete the contents of the var/generation and var/di directories before setting the mode:

$ sudo rm -rf installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/var/di/* installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/var/generation/*

How to configure the Magento cron task?

Follow the steps below:

  • Run the following command to open the crontab file:

     $ sudo crontab -e
    

    If prompted for an editor, select one you are most acquainted with. nano is the easiest one if you don't know which one to choose.

  • At the end of the file, add the following lines. Replace USERNAME with the name of the user account used to install the stack.

     */1 * * * * su USERNAME -s /bin/sh -c "installdir/php/bin/php -c installdir/php/etc/php.ini installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/bin/magento-cli cron:run"
     */1 * * * * su USERNAME -s /bin/sh -c "installdir/php/bin/php installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/update/cron.sh"
     */1 * * * * su USERNAME -s /bin/sh -c "installdir/php/bin/php -c installdir/php/etc/php.ini installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/bin/magento-cli setup:cron:run"
    
  • Save the file and exit.

Again, check the tasks have been correctly added running the following command. It should display the content of the file just edited, including the newly-added lines.

$ sudo crontab -l

If you don't have the installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/update/cron.sh file, clone the updater repository as described in this guide.

How to flush the cache?

In order to purge out-of-date items from the cache, you can clean or flush cache types:

  • Cleaning a cache type deletes all items from enabled Magento cache types only. In other words, this option does not affect other processes or applications because it only cleans the cache used by Magento. Disabled cache types are not cleaned.
  • Flushing a cache type purges the cache storage, which might affect other processes applications that are using the same storage.

Flush cache types if you've already tried cleaning the cache and you still have unresolved issues.

Flush the cache using the command line

$ sudo installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/bin/magento-cli cache:clean
$ sudo installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/bin/magento-cli cache:flush

For example, to flush all cache types, enter

$ sudo installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/bin/magento-cli cache:flush --all

Flush the cache using the web interface

Flushing all cache types:

  • Open the Administration panel and click on "System-> Tools-> Cache Management".
  • Select all cache types and "Refresh" action in the drop down box located on the top left margin.
  • Click both buttons "Flush Magento Cache" and "Flush Cache Storage".

Flushing the cache from the web interface

How to disable the cache?

TIP: This is recommended only if templates or source files are being changed.

Go to "System -> Tools -> Cache Management", mark all cache types and select "Disable" in the action box. Click the "Submit" button.

Disable the cache from the web interface

How to migrate your Magento installation?

There are two important steps when migrating a Magento Stack: create a backup of your system and database on the old server, and restore it to the new one. To make this process easier, divide them into four sub-steps.

Export the Magento installation files and database

The first step you need to follow is to create a full backup both of the Magento installation files and its database. Once you have obtained the backup files, export and save them to a safe location. In the old machine you have installed Magento, perform the following:

  • Create a system backup using the Magento admin interface section. Remember to select the "System Backup" option.

    TIP: You can enable the maintenance mode while creating the backup. Visitors will see a "Service Temporarily Unavailable" message in their web browsers instead of the store.
    • Once the backup has been created, you will see your backup in the list of available backup files. Select the one you have created and click on the tgz link to download it.

    Download the Magento backup file

  • Create a database backup. You can do this manually or with phpMyAdmin. If you use phpMyAdmin, export it as an .sql file.
  • Download the resulting .sql file. If you created the database backup using phpMyAdmin, the file was automatically downloaded. If you created the database backup manually, download the file from your server with SFTP. You can follow these instructions by changing the action from "Upload" to "Download".

Upload the Magento installation backup file

In this step, you just need to upload the Magento installation backup file to the machine where you have installed the new Magento. Upload the file to the new server with SFTP. Then, move it to the installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/ directory.

Import the database

Follow these instructions to import and restore the database backup into the new Magento installation:

Substitute pub/ and var/ directories

To complete the migration of your old Magento installation to the new one, you need to replace some directories and delete some others in order to save space and clear some useless data.

  • Change to the installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/ directory and remove the pub/ and var/ folders:

    $ cd installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/
    $ rm -rf var pub
    
  • Uncompress the system backup .tar file. To do so, execute the following command (replace the BACKUP_FILE placeholder with the name of your backup file):

    $ sudo tar xzpf BACKUP_FILE
    
  • Remove the var/cache, var/session, var/report and var/log directories:

    $ cd var
    $ rm -rf cache session report log
    
  • Stop the database service:

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh stop mysql
    
  • Open the installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/app/etc/env.php file, check the password, host, port and user values and replace them with the values of your new Magento installation.
  • Restart all the services:

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart
    

Now, you should be able to access the new Magento admin panel using the password of your old server. The migration of your old Magento installation has been completed.

Troubleshooting

When using the Magento command line tool, you may experience some problems related to permissions. If you get a 500 error in your browser, readjust permissions running the following commands:

$ sudo find installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/ -type d -exec chmod 775 {} \;
$ sudo find installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/ -type f -exec chmod 664 {} \;
$ sudo chown -R SYSTEM_USER:APACHE_GROUP installdir/apps/magento/htdocs/
NOTE: SYSTEM_USER and APACHE_GROUP are placeholders. Replace them to set the permissions properly. If you installed the stack using admin privileges, the APACHE_GROUP placeholder can be substituted with daemon.

How to optimize Magento?

Enable all the application cache options in the Magento administration panel, under the "System -> Cache Management" menu.

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