Bitnami MongoDB Virtual Machine

Description

MongoDB is a scalable, high-performance, open source NoSQL database written in C++.

First steps with the Bitnami MongoDB Stack

Welcome to your new Bitnami application! This guide includes some basic information you will need to get started with your application.

How to import a Bitnami Virtual Machine?

Check the following instructions to import a Bitnami Virtual Machine:

Importing a Bitnami Virtual Machine in VirtualBox
  • Select the "File -> Import Appliance" menu option and select the .ova file downloaded from the Bitnami website. Then click "Continue".
  • Once it is imported, click the "Start" button in the VirtualBox toolbar.

For a detailed walkthrough, check our Virtualbox tutorial.

Importing a Bitnami Virtual Machine in a VMware product
  • Select the "File -> Import" menu option and select the .ova file downloaded from the Bitnami website. Then click "Continue".
  • Once the import is complete, click "Finish" to start the virtual machine.

For a detailed walkthrough, check our VMware tutorial, which uses VMware Fusion as an example. To learn how to use our virtual machines with other VMware products, refer to the VMware Workstation documentation or the VMware vSphere documentation.

What credentials do I need?

You need two sets of credentials:

  • The application credentials, consisting of a username and password. These credentials allow you to log in to your new Bitnami application.
  • The server credentials, consisting of an SSH username and password. These credentials allow you to log in to your virtual machine using an SSH client and execute commands at the virtual machine console using the command line.

What is the administrator username set for me to log in to the application for the first time?

Username: root

What is the administrator password?

Password: The administrator password to log in to your application is randomly generated during the first boot. Check the FAQ to learn how to retrieve it.

What SSH username should I use for secure shell access to my application?

SSH username: bitnami

What is my server IP address?

The IP address is displayed on screen at the end of the boot process, but you can check it at any time by running the following command:

  $ sudo ifconfig

Check server IP address

How do I get my SSH key or password?

You can obtain the SSH password from the virtual machine console when it starts up. Click here for more information.

How to start or stop the services?

Each Bitnami stack includes a control script that lets you easily stop, start and restart services. The script is located at /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh. Call it without any service name arguments to start all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start

Or use it to restart a single service, such as Apache only, by passing the service name as argument:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart apache

Use this script to stop all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop

Restart the services by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart

Obtain a list of available services and operations by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh

What is the default configuration?

The MongoDB admin user for all databases is created during the Bitnami Stack installation process. The default configuration consists of:

  • The default data directory in Bitnami is located at /opt/bitnami/mongodb/data.
  • A privileged account with a username of root. The root user has remote access to the database.

Check our recommendations for a production server.

MongoDB version

In order to see which MongoDB version are your machine running you can execute the following:

$ mongod --version

MongoDB configuration file

The MongoDB configuration file is located at /opt/bitnami/mongodb/mongodb.conf.

The official MongoDB documentation has more details about how configure the MongoDB database.

MongoDB socket

On Unix, the MongoDB clients can connect to the server using a Unix socket file at /opt/bitnami/mongodb/tmp/mongodb.sock.

Usually, when you use the MongoDB client tool included in the Stack, you will not need to specify the socket for the connection.

MongoDB port

The default port in which MongoDB listens is 27017.

MongoDB log file

The main MongoDB log file is at /opt/bitnami/mongodb/log/mongodb.log.

What are the default ports?

A port is an endpoint of communication in an operating system that identifies a specific process or a type of service. Bitnami stacks include several services or servers that require a port.

IMPORTANT: Making this application's network ports public is a significant security risk. You are strongly advised to only allow access to those ports from trusted networks. If, for development purposes, you need to access from outside of a trusted network, please do not allow access to those ports via a public IP address. Instead, use a secure channel such as a VPN or an SSH tunnel. Follow these instructions to remotely connect safely and reliably.

Port 22 is the default port for SSH connections.

The MongoDB access port is 27017. This port is closed by default. You must open it to enable remote access.

How to secure your server?

  • Once you have created a new database and user credentials for your application, connect your applications to the MongoDB server using only that database and credentials.

  • If you don't need remote access for the database, make the server listen only on the local machine by editing the mongodb.conf file and uncommenting the line below:

     bind-address=127.0.0.1
    
  • If you don't need remote access for the database, make sure the MongoDB server port (usually 27017) is closed. Refer to the FAQ for more information on closing server ports.

  • Don't forget to change the root user password as explained in this section.

  • It is strongly recommended that you do not have empty passwords for any user accounts when using the server for any production work.

How to find the MongoDB database credentials?

How to connect to the MongoDB database?

You can connect to the MongoDB database from the same computer where it is installed. Run the mongo client authenticating as the root user against the admin database:

$ mongo admin --username root -p

You will be prompted to enter the root user password. This is the same as the application password.

How to connect to MongoDB from a different machine?

For security reasons, the MongoDB port in this solution cannot be accessed over a public IP address. To connect to MongoDB from a different machine, you must open port 27017 for remote access. Refer to the FAQ for more information on this.

IMPORTANT: By default, the database port for the nodes in this solution cannot be accessed over a public IP address. As a result, you will only be able to connect to your database nodes from machines that are running in the same network. For security reasons, we do not recommend making the database port accessible over a public IP address. If you must make it accessible over a public IP address, we recommend restricting access to a trusted list of source IP addresses using firewall rules. Refer to the FAQ for information on opening ports in the server firewall.

Once you have an active SSH tunnel or you opened the port for remote access, you can then connect to MongoDB using a command like the one below.

Remember to replace SOURCE-PORT with the source port number specified in the SSH tunnel configuration or 27017 if you opened the port for remote access.

$ mongo admin --username root -p --host 127.0.0.1 --port SOURCE-PORT

How to change the MongoDB root password?

You can modify the MongoDB password using the following command at the shell prompt:

$ mongo admin --username root --password YOURPASSWORD
MongoDB shell version: 2.4.8
connecting to: 127.0.0.1:27017/admin
> db = db.getSiblingDB('admin')
admin
> db.changeUserPassword("root", "NEWPASSWORD")
> exit
NOTE: Remember that both YOURPASSWORD and NEWPASSWORD are placeholders. Replace them with your current password and with the new password you want to set.

How to reset the MongoDB root password?

You can reset the administrator password by following the steps below:

  • Edit the /opt/bitnami/mongodb/mongodb.conf file and replace the following lines:

     # Turn on/off security.  Off is currently the default
     #noauth = true
     auth = true
    
     # Disable the HTTP interface (Defaults to localhost:27018).
     #nohttpinterface = true
     setParameter = enableLocalhostAuthBypass=0
    

    with:

     # Turn on/off security.  Off is currently the default
     noauth = true
     #auth = true
    
     # Disable the HTTP interface (Defaults to localhost:27018).
     #nohttpinterface = true
     #setParameter = enableLocalhostAuthBypass=0
    
  • Restart the MongoDB server:

     $ cd /opt/bitnami
     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart mongodb
    
  • Create a new administrative user with a new password. Run the following commands to do so (remember to replace NEWPASSWORD with the new one you want to set):

     $ mongo
     > db = db.getSiblingDB('admin')
     admin
     > db.changeUserPassword("root", "NEWPASSWORD")
    
  • Revert the modifications made to /opt/bitnami/mongodb/mongodb.conf by replacing:

     # Turn on/off security.  Off is currently the default
     noauth = true
     #auth = true
    
     # Disable the HTTP interface (Defaults to localhost:27018).
     #nohttpinterface = true
     #setParameter = enableLocalhostAuthBypass=0
    

    with:

     # Turn on/off security. Off is currently the default
     #noauth = true
     auth = true
    
     # Disable the HTTP interface (Defaults to localhost:27018).
     #nohttpinterface = true
     setParameter = enableLocalhostAuthBypass=0
    
  • Restart the MongoDB server again:

     $ cd /opt/bitnami
     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart mongodb
    

How to create a database for a custom application?

If you want to install an application manually, it may require the database to be set up first. Use the commands below to create a database. Replace the DATABASE_NAME placeholder with the name of the database you wish to use and the PASSWORD placeholder with your MongoDB password.

$ mongo admin --username root --password PASSWORD
MongoDB shell version: 2.4.8
connecting to: 127.0.0.1:27017/admin
> db = db.getSiblingDB('DATABASE_NAME')
DATABASE_NAME

How to create a user with all privileges for a database?

To create a user with all privileges for a MongoDB database, select the database for use and then use the createUser() function, as shown below. Replace the DATABASE_NAME placeholder with the name of the database you wish to use, the PASSWORD placeholder with your MongoDB password, and the DATABASE_USER and DATABASE_PASSWORD placeholders with the correct user name and password.

$ mongo admin --username root --password PASSWORD
MongoDB shell version: 2.4.8
connecting to: 127.0.0.1:27017/admin
> db = db.getSiblingDB('DATABASE_NAME')
DATABASE_NAME
> db.createUser( { user: "DATABASE_USER", pwd: "DATABASE_PASSWORD", roles: [ "readWrite", "dbAdmin" ]} )
{
 "user" : "DATABASE_USER",
 "pwd" : "...",
 "roles" : [
  "readWrite",
  "dbAdmin"
 ],
 "_id" : ObjectId("...")
}
> exit

Some applications may require specific privileges in the database. Consult the official installation steps in the application documentation.

How to create a user with restricted privileges in an existing database?

In case you already have a database created, you can create a new user with restricted privileges. Find an example below of how to create a new user with read-write privileges only. Replace the DATABASE_NAME placeholder with the name of the database you wish to use, and the DATABASE_USER and DATABASE_PASSWORD placeholders with the correct user name and password.

$ mongo admin --username root --password PASSWORD
MongoDB shell version: 2.4.8
connecting to: 127.0.0.1:27017/admin
> db = db.getSiblingDB('DATABASE_NAME')
> db.createUser( { user: "DATABASE_USER", pwd: "DATABASE_PASSWORD", roles: [ "readWrite"]} )
{
   "user" : "DATABASE_USER",
    "pwd" : "...",
     "roles" : [
       "readWrite",
          ],
           "_id" : ObjectId("...")
}
> exit

You can log into an existing database with a non-root user account previously created for it, but you can use that account to create other user accounts only if it has sufficient privileges.

How can I run a command in the Bitnami MongoDB Stack?

Log in to the server console as the bitnami user and run the command as usual. The required environment is automatically loaded for the bitnami user.

How to create a database backup?

To back up the data contained in your database, create a dump file using the mongodump tool.

$ mongodump --authenticationDatabase admin --username root --password PASSWORD -d DATABASE_NAME

This operation could take some time depending on the amount of data that you have stored in the database.

How to restore a database backup?

To restore data backed up using the previous command, restore a dump file using the mongorestore tool.

$ mongorestore --authenticationDatabase admin --username root --password PASSWORD PATH_TO_BACKUP_FILE

Note that the steps previously described will only back up the data contained inside your database. There may be other files that you should take into account when performing a full backup, such as files that may have been uploaded to the application. These files are stored in the application folder itself, so copy this folder to have a backup of your uploaded files.

How to debug errors in your MongoDB database?

The main log file is created at /opt/bitnami/mongodb/log/mongodb.log on the MongoDB database server host.

virtualMachine

Bitnami Documentation