Bitnami Tomcat Installer

NOTE: Before running the commands shown on this page, you should load the Bitnami stack environment by executing the installdir/use_APPNAME script (Linux and Mac OS X) or by clicking the shortcut in the Start Menu under "Start -> Bitnami APPNAME Stack -> Application console" (Windows). Learn more.
NOTE: When running the commands shown on this page, replace the installdir placeholder with the full installation directory for your Bitnami stack.

Description

Tomcat is a widely adopted open source Java application and web server. Created by the Apache Software Foundation, it is lightweight and agile with a large ecosystem of add-ons.

First steps with the Bitnami Tomcat Stack

Welcome to your new Bitnami application! Here are a few questions (and answers!) you might need when first starting with your application.

What are the system requirements?

Before you download and install your application, check that your system meets these requirements.

How do I install the Bitnami Tomcat Stack?

Windows, OS X and Linux installer
  • Download the executable file for the Bitnami Tomcat Stack from the Bitnami website.

  • Run the downloaded file:

    • On Linux, give the installer executable permissions and run the installation file in the console.
    • On other platforms, double-click the installer and follow the instructions shown.

Check the FAQ instructions on how to download and install a Bitnami Stack for more details.

The application will be installed to the following default directories:

Operating System Directory
Windows C:\Bitnami\APPNAME-VERSION
Mac OS X /Applications/APPNAME-VERSION
Linux /opt/APPNAME-VERSION (running as root user)
OS X VM
  • Download the OS X VM file for the Bitnami Tomcat Stack from the Bitnami website.
  • Begin the installation process by double-clicking the image file and dragging the WordPress OS X VM icon to the Applications folder.
  • Launch the VM by double-clicking the icon in the Applications folder.

What credentials do I need?

You need application credentials, consisting of a username and password. These credentials allow you to log in to your new Bitnami application.

What is the administrator username set for me to log in to the application for the first time?

  • For Windows, Linux and OS X installers, the username was configured by you when you first installed the application.
  • For OS X VMs, the username can be obtained by clicking the Bitnami badge at the bottom right corner of the application welcome page.

What is the administrator password?

  • For Windows, Linux and OS X installers, the password was configured by you when you first installed the application.
  • For OS X VMs, the password can be obtained by clicking the Bitnami badge at the bottom right corner of the application welcome page.

How to start or stop the services?

Linux

Bitnami native installers include a graphical tool to manage services. This tool is named manager-linux-x64.run on Linux and is located in the installation directory. To use this tool, double-click the file and then use the graphical interface to start, stop or restart services. Server log messages can be checked in the "Server Events" tab.

Management tool

The native installer also includes a command-line script to start, stop and restart applications, named ctlscript.sh. This script can be found in the installation directory and accepts the options start, stop, restart, and status. To use it, log in to the server console and execute it following the examples below:

  • Call it without any service names to start all services:

      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
  • Use it to restart a specific service only by passing the service name as argument - for example, mysql, postgresql or apache:

      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart mysql
      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart postgresql
      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart apache
    
  • Obtain current status of all services:

      $ installdir/ctlscript.sh status
    

The list of available services varies depending on the required components for each application.

Mac OS X

Bitnami native installers include a graphical tool to manage services. This tool is named manager-osx on Mac OS X and is located in the installation directory. To use this tool, double-click the file and then use the graphical interface to start, stop or restart services. Server log messages can be checked in the "Server Events" tab.

Management tool

The native installer also includes a command-line script to start, stop and restart applications, named ctlscript.sh. This script can be found in the installation directory and accepts the options start, stop, restart, and status. To use it, log in to the server console and execute it following the examples below:

  • Call it without any service names to start all services:

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
  • Use it to restart a specific service only by passing the service name as argument - for example, mysql or apache:

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart mysql
     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart apache
    
  • Obtain current status of all services:

     $ installdir/ctlscript.sh status
    

The list of available services varies depending on the required components for each application.

NOTE: If you are using the stack manager for Mac OS X-VM, please check the following blog post to learn how to manage services from its graphical tool.

Windows

Bitnami native installers include a graphical tool to manage services. This tool is named manager-windows.exe on Windows and is located in the installation directory. To use this tool, double-click the file and then use the graphical interface to start, stop or restart services. Server log messages can be checked in the "Server Events" tab.

Management tool

The Windows native installer creates shortcuts to start and stop services created in the Start Menu, under "Programs -> Bitnami APPNAME Stack -> Bitnami Service". Servers can also be managed from the Windows "Services" control panel. Services are named using the format APPNAMESERVICENAME, where APPNAME is a placeholder for the application name and SERVICENAME is a placeholder for the service name. For example, the native installer for the Bitnami WordPress Stack installs services named wordpressApache and wordpressMySQL.

These services will be automatically started during boot. To modify this behaviour, refer to the section on disabling services on Windows.

How can I get started with Tomcat?

To get started, we suggest the following steps:

Step 1. Publish Web pages.

To serve Web pages with Apache Tomcat, simply copy your files to the default document root directory at installdir/apache-tomcat/webapps/ROOT. To deploy a WAR file, simply copy the WAR file to the installdir/apache-tomcat/webapps folder.

Step 2. Access the management console.

Use the Tomcat management console to manage the Tomcat server and deploy applications. To access it, refer to these instructions.

Step 3. Use Apache with Tomcat.

You can connect the Apache Web server with Tomcat through the AJP protocol. To make them work together, enable the mod_proxy.so and mod_proxy_ajp.so modules in installdir/apache2/conf/httpd.conf and then configure the ProxyPass directive .

For more information, refer to these instructions.

How to access the Tomcat server console?

Access the Tomcat console by browsing to http://localhost:8080/ (if installed as a non-root user) or http://localhost/ (if installed as the root user).

How to find the MySQL database credentials?

How to connect to the MySQL database?

You can connect to the MySQL database from the same computer where it is installed with the mysql client tool.

$ mysql -u root -p

You will be prompted to enter the root user password. This is the same as the application password.

How to connect to Tomcat from a different machine?

For security reasons, Tomcat Manager and Tomcat Host Manager cannot be accessed over a public IP address. Both applications only work from localhost by default but you can allow remote connections by changing their configuration.

IMPORTANT: Make these applications accessible a public IP address is a significat security risk. Instead, use a secure channel such as a VPN or an SSH tunnel. Follow these instructions to remotely connect safely and reliably.

Connecting to Tomcat Manager from a different machine

In order to allow remote connections to the Tomcat Manager, follow the instructions below:

  • Create a file named installdir/apache-tomcat/conf/Catalina/localhost/manager.xml with the following content:

    <Context privileged="true" antiResourceLocking="false" 
             docBase="${catalina.home}/webapps/manager">
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.RemoteAddrValve" allow="^.*$" />
    </Context>
    
  • Restart Tomcat:

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart tomcat
    

Connecting to Tomcat Host Manager from a different machine

In order to allow remote connections to the Tomcat Host Manager, follow the instructions below:

  • Create a file named installdir/apache-tomcat/conf/Catalina/localhost/host-manager.xml with the following content:

    <Context privileged="true" antiResourceLocking="false"
             docBase="${catalina.home}/webapps/host-manager">
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.RemoteAddrValve" allow="^.*$" />
    </Context>
    
  • Restart Tomcat:

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart tomcat
    

How to access phpMyAdmin?

You should be able to access phpMyAdmin directly, by browsing to http://127.0.0.1/phpmyadmin.

The username is root for phpMyAdmin, and the password is the one specified by you during the installation process.

How to reset the MariaDB root password?

Please note that depending on the version you have installed, you may find the MariaDB files at installdir/mysql

If you don't remember your MariaDB root password, you can follow the steps below to reset it to a new value:

  • Create a file in /home/bitnami/mysql-init with the content shown below (replace NEW_PASSWORD with the password you wish to use):

     UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('NEW_PASSWORD') WHERE User='root';
     FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    
  • Stop the MariaDB server:

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh stop mariadb
    
  • Start MariaDB with the following command:

     $ sudo installdir/mariadb/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=installdir/mariadb/my.cnf --pid-file=installdir/mariadb/data/mysqld.pid --init-file=/home/bitnami/mysql-init 2> /dev/null &
    
  • Restart the MariaDB server:

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart mariadb
    
  • Remove the init script

     $ rm /home/bitnami/mysql-init
    

How to change the MariaDB root password?

You can modify the MariaDB password using the following command at the shell prompt:

$ installdir/mariadb/bin/mysqladmin -p -u root password NEW_PASSWORD

How to create an SSL certificate for Apache Tomcat?

A detailed guide is available in the official Apache Tomcat documentation at http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-6.0-doc/ssl-howto.html.

How to enable SSL access over HTTPS?

You can configure Apache Tomcat to enable SSL access to applications using HTTPS. It is necessary to configure Tomcat with the location of the Apache SSL certificate, as described below.

  • Check that the certificate file is present at installdir/apache-tomcat/conf/ssl/tomcat.cert.pem and the certificate key file is present at installdir/apache-tomcat/conf/ssl/tomcat.key.pem.

  • Uncomment the following line in the installdir/apache-tomcat/conf/server.xml file:

       <Connector port="8443"
                  protocol="HTTP/1.1" SSLEnabled="true"
                  maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
                  enableLookups="false" disableUploadTimeout="true"
                  acceptCount="100" scheme="https" secure="true"
                  clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS"
                  keystoreFile="conf/myKeystore"
                  keystorePass="your_password"
                  SSLCertificateFile="installdir/apache-tomcat/conf/ssl/tomcat.cert.pem"
                  SSLCertificateKeyFile="installdir/apache-tomcat/conf/ssl/tomcat.key.pem"/>
    
  • Restart the Apache Tomcat server

You should now be able to access your Web applications over HTTPS by browsing to https://localhost:8443.

How to configure the Apache Tomcat server?

The main Apache Tomcat configuration file is at installdir/apache-tomcat/conf/server.xml.

Once Apache Tomcat starts, it will create several log files in the installdir/apache-tomcat/logs directory. The main log file is the catalina.out file where you can find error messages.

How is Apache server connected with Tomcat?

Bitnami stacks include the Apache Web server. There are different ways to connect these two servers. One of them is connecting through the AJP protocol.

The AJP Connector element represents a Connector component that communicates with a web connector via the AJP protocol. This is used to invisibly integrate Tomcat into an Apache installation and have Apache handle the static content of the web application and/or to utilize Apache's SSL processing.

To make them work together, enable the mod_proxy.so and mod_proxy_ajp.so modules in installdir/apache2/conf/httpd.conf. Then, add the following lines to the file:

<Location /APPURL>
 ProxyPass ajp://localhost:8009/APPURL
</Location>

If you connect your application through AJP, you will probably want to disable the Tomcat HTTP port. The Bitnami Tomcat Stack has the HTTP server disabled by default. To modify this configuration, uncomment the HTTP section in the installdir/apache-tomcat/conf/server.xml file.

How to change the Apache Tomcat port?

With the default configuration, Apache Tomcat will listen for requests on port 8080. To use a different port, edit the server.xml file and modify the value specified in the Port directive.

<Connector port="8080" URIEncoding="UTF-8" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
connectionTimeout="20000" redirectPort="8443" />

Restart the Apache Tomcat server for the changes to take effect.

How to change the Java memory settings?

The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) determines the default settings for your Java application:

JAVA_OPTS="-Xms256m -Xmx512m"

The Tomcat server uses CATALINA_OPTS to set these Java settings when running:

CATALINA_OPTS="-Xms256M -Xmx768M"

You can increase these settings if necessary by following the steps below:

Linux and Mac OS X

  • Modify the settings file installdir/apache-tomcat/bin/setenv.sh:

     $ export CATALINA_OPTS="$CATALINA_OPTS -Xms256M -Xmx768M"
    

    NOTE: You could also modify the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) settings if you prefer.

       $ export JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Xms256M -Xmx768M"
    
  • Restart Tomcat after modifying the file:

     $ installdir/ctlscript.sh restart tomcat
    

Windows

  • Modify the settings file installdir/apache-tomcat/bin/setenv.bat:

     $ SET CATALINA_OPTS="%CATALINA_OPTS% -Xms256M -Xmx768M"
    

    NOTE: You could also modify the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) settings if you prefer.

       $ SET JAVA_OPTS="%JAVA_OPTS% -Xms256M -Xmx768M"
    
  • Reinstall the services after modifying the file, as shown below. Run the following commands from an elevated command prompt:

     $ cd installdir
     $ serviceinstall.bat UNINSTALL
     $ serviceinstall.bat INSTALL
    

How to increase the upload size limit in Tomcat?

Modify the max-file-size and max-request-size values in the application's web.xml configuration file (for example, in the webapps/manager/WEB-INF/web.xml file).

<max-file-size>83886080</max-file-size>
<max-request-size>83886080</max-request-size>

Remember to restart your Tomcat server for the changes to take effect.

How to use an independent Java installation instead of the bundled one?

Windows

Uninstall the Apache Tomcat service, edit the JAVA_HOME variable and then reinstall the Apache Tomcat service. For example, run the following commands from an elevated command prompt:

$ cd installdir\apache-tomcat\scripts
$ serviceinstall.bat UNINSTALL

Now change the JAVA_HOME variable in the installdir/apache-tomcat/bin/setenv.bat file to point to your custom Java installation. Then, reinstall the service as shown below from an elevated command prompt:

$ cd installdir\apache-tomcat\scripts
$ serviceinstall.bat INSTALL

Linux and Mac OS X

Change the JAVA_HOME variable in the installdir/apache-tomcat/bin/setenv.sh file and the JRE_HOME variable in the installdir/apache-tomcat/scripts/ctl.sh to point to your custom Java installation. Then, restart the Tomcat service:

$ installdir/ctlscript.sh restart tomcat

How can I run a command in the Bitnami Tomcat Stack?

Load the Bitnami Console and then run the command as usual.

How to create a custom Java application?

Many users run a Bitnami stack as a development environment for their own projects (as opposed to running third-party applications). To create a custom Java application from scratch, follow the steps below. These steps assume that your application will live in the installdir/apps/myapp/ directory:

  • Run the following commands to create the directories:

    $ sudo mkdir installdir/apps/myapp
    $ sudo mkdir installdir/apps/myapp/conf
    
  • Create and edit the installdir/apps/myapp/conf/httpd-prefix.conf file and add the line below to it:

    Include "installdir/apps/myapp/conf/httpd-app.conf"
    
  • Create and edit the installdir/apps/myapp/conf/httpd-app.conf file and add the content below to it. This is the main configuration file for your application, so modify it further depending on your application's requirements.

    <Location /myapp>
    ProxyPass ajp://localhost:8009/myapp
    </Location>
    
    NOTE: 8009 is the default port for the AJP connector. If you have customized the stack to use a different port, change it here as well.
  • Once you have created the files and directories above, add the following line to the end of the main Apache configuration file at installdir/apache2/conf/bitnami/bitnami-apps-prefix.conf, as shown below:

    Include "installdir/apps/myapp/conf/httpd-prefix.conf"
    
  • Restart the Apache server.

You should now be able to access the application at http://localhost/myapp.

How to publish a Web page?

To serve Web pages with Apache Tomcat, simply copy your files to the default document root directory at installdir/apache-tomcat/webapps/ROOT.

How to create a full backup of Tomcat?

The Bitnami Tomcat Stack is self-contained and the simplest option for performing a backup is to copy or compress the Bitnami stack installation directory. To do so in a safe manner, you will need to stop all servers, so this method may not be appropriate if you have people accessing the application continuously.

NOTE: If you want to create only a database backup, refer to these instructions for MySQL and PostgreSQL.

Backup on Linux and Mac OS X

Follow these steps:

  • Change to the directory in which you wish to save your backup.

     $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers.

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh stop
    
  • Create a compressed file with the stack contents.

     $ sudo tar -pczvf application-backup.tar.gz installdir
    
  • Start all servers.

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
  • Download or transfer the application-backup.tar.gz file to a safe location.

You should now download or transfer the application-backup.tar.gz file to a safe location.

Backup on Windows

Follow these steps:

  • Stop all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

  • Create a compressed file with the stack contents. You can use a graphical tool like 7-Zip or WinZip or just right-click the folder, click "Send to", and select the "Compressed (zipped) folder" option.

  • Download or transfer the compressed file to a safe location.

  • Start all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

Restore on Linux and Mac OS X

Follow these steps:

  • Change to the directory containing your backup:

    $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers.

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh stop
    
  • Move the current stack to a different location:

    $ sudo mv installdir /tmp/bitnami-backup
    
  • Uncompress the backup file to the original directory:

    $ sudo tar -pxzvf application-backup.tar.gz -C /
    
  • Start all servers.

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
IMPORTANT: When restoring, remember to maintain the original permissions for the files and folders. For example, if you originally installed the stack as the root user on Linux, make sure that the restored files are owned by root as well.

Restore on Windows

  • Change to the directory containing your backup:

       $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

  • Uninstall the previous services by executing the following command:

        $ serviceinstall.bat
    
  • Create a safe folder named Backups in the desktop and move the current stack to it. Remember to replace PATH with the right location of your folder:

        $ move installdir \PATH\Backups
    
  • Uncompress the backup file using a tool like 7-Zip or Winzip or just double-click the .zip file to uncompress it, and move it to the original directory.
  • Install services by running the following commands from an elevated command prompt:

      $ cd installdir
      $ serviceinstall.bat INSTALL
    
  • Start all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

How to debug errors in your database?

The main log file is created at installdir/mysql/data/mysqld.log on the MySQL database server host.

How to debug errors in Tomcat?

The main Apache Tomcat configuration file is at installdir/apache-tomcat/conf/server.xml.

Once Apache Tomcat starts, it will create several log files in the installdir/apache-tomcat/logs directory. The main log file is the catalina.out file where you can find error messages. On some platforms, you may need root account privileges to view these files.

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