Bitnami Drupal for Amazon Web Services

Description

Drupal is a content management platform that allows users to easily publish, manage and organize content. It is used for community web portals, discussion sites, corporate web sites and more. It is easy to extend by plugging in modules.

First steps with the Bitnami Drupal Stack

Welcome to your new Bitnami application running on Amazon Web Services! Here are a few questions (and answers!) you might need when first starting with your application.

What is the administrator username set for me to log in to the application for the first time?

Username: user

What is the administrator password?

What SSH username should I use for secure shell access to my application?

SSH username: bitnami

How to connect to the MySQL database?

You can connect to the MySQL database from the same computer where it is installed with the mysql client tool.

$ mysql -u root -p 

You will be prompted to enter the root user password. This is the same as the application password.

Find out how to obtain application credentials.

How to debug errors in your database?

The main log file is created at /opt/bitnami/mysql/data/mysqld.log on the MySQL database server host.

How to start or stop the servers?

Each Bitnami stack includes a control script that lets you easily stop, start and restart servers. The script is located at /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh. Call it without any service name arguments to start all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start

Or use it to restart a single service, by passing the service name as argument. For example, if the stack uses the Apache Web server, use the command below to restart it:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart apache

Or, if the stack uses the Nginx server, use the command below to restart it:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart nginx

Use this script to stop all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop

Restart the services by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart

Obtain a list of available services and operations by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh  

How to reset the MariaDB root password?

If you don't remember your MariaDB root password, you can follow the steps below to reset it to a new value:

  • Create a file in /home/bitnami/mysql-init with the content shown below (replace NEW_PASSWORD with the password you wish to use):

     UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('NEW_PASSWORD') WHERE User='root';
     FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    
  • Stop the MariaDB server:

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop mysql
    
  • Start MariaDB with the following command:

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/opt/bitnami/mysql/my.cnf --pid-file=/opt/bitnami/mysql/data/mysqld.pid --init-file=/home/bitnami/mysql-init 2> /dev/null &
    
  • Restart the MariaDB server:

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart mysql
    
  • Remove the init script

     $ rm /home/bitnami/mysql-init
    

How to change the MariaDB root password?

You can modify the MariaDB password using the following command at the shell prompt:

$ /opt/bitnami/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -p -u root password NEW_PASSWORD        

How to create a full backup of Drupal?

Backup

The Bitnami Drupal Stack is self-contained and the simplest option for performing a backup is to copy or compress the Bitnami stack installation directory. To do so in a safe manner, you will need to stop all servers, so this method may not be appropriate if you have people accessing the application continuously.

Follow these steps:

  • Change to the directory in which you wish to save your backup:

      $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers:

      $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop
    
  • Create a compressed file with the stack contents:

      $ sudo tar -pczvf application-backup.tar.gz /opt/bitnami
    
  • Restart all servers:

      $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start
    

You should now download or transfer the application-backup.tar.gz file to a safe location.

Restore

Follow these steps:

  • Change to the directory containing your backup:

      $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers:

      $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop
    
  • Move the current stack to a different location:

      $ sudo mv /opt/bitnami /tmp/bitnami-backup
    
  • Uncompress the backup file to the original directoryv

      $ sudo tar -pxzvf application-backup.tar.gz -C /
    
  • Start all servers:

      $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start
    

If you want to create only a database backup, refer to these instructions for MySQL and PostgreSQL.

How to configure outbound email settings?

Drupal 7 and earlier

Install and configure the SMTP Authentication Support module for Drupal 7, as follows:

  • Download the SMTP Authentication Support module for Drupal to your Drupal installation's sites/all/modules directory and extract. Previous Drupal versions have the module already installed in the modules/ directory.

  • The PHPMailer package is included in Drupal 7. For older versions, follow these additional steps:

    • Create a phpmailer/ directory in the new sites/all/modules/smtp directory.

    • Download the PHPmailer package from Github and extract it to the sites/all/modules/smtp/phpmailer directory.

  • Log in to the Drupal 7 administration panel.

  • Go to the "Administer -> Site Building -> Modules" section and enable "SMTP Authentication Support".

  • Now go to the "Administer by Module" tab, scroll down to the "SMTP Authentication Support" section and click the "SMTP Authentication Support" option.

  • Enter the following configuration options. For example, if using a Gmail account, replace USERNAME and PASSWORD with your Gmail account username and password respectively.

     SMTP Server - smtp.gmail.com
     SMTP backup server - leave blank
     SMTP port - 465
     Use encrypted protocol - Use SSL
     Username - USERNAME@gmail.com
     Password - PASSWORD
     Email from address - USERNAME@gmail.com
     E-mail from name - the name you want emails to appear to be from (e.g. 'Yourdomain Support' or your real name)
    
  • Send a test email.

Drupal 8

Install and configure the SMTP Authentication Support module for Drupal 8, as follows:

  • Download the SMTP Authentication Support module for Drupal to your Drupal installation's modules directory and unzip.

  • Log in to the Drupal 8 administration panel.

  • Navigate to the "Extend" tab and enable "SMTP Authentication Support".

  • Navigate "Configuration" tab, scroll down to the "SMTP Authentication Support" section and select it.

  • On the resulting page, turn the module "On" and enter the SMTP configuration options. For example, if using a Gmail account, replace USERNAME and PASSWORD with your Gmail account username and password respectively.

     SMTP Server - smtp.gmail.com
     SMTP backup server - leave blank
     SMTP port - 465
     Use encrypted protocol - Use SSL
     Username - USERNAME@gmail.com
     Password - PASSWORD
     Email from address - USERNAME@gmail.com
     E-mail from name - the name you want emails to appear to be from (e.g. 'Yourdomain Support' or your real name)
    
  • Enter a test email address.

  • Click "Save configuration" to save your changes and send a test email.

To configure the application to use other third-party SMTP services for outgoing email, such as SendGrid or Mandrill, refer to the FAQ.

If you are using Gmail as the outbound email server and you are not receiving emails correctly, make sure that the Google "Allow less secure apps" option is activated. To do so:

Allow less secure apps in Gmail

How to upload files to the server with SFTP?

Although you can use any SFTP/SCP client to transfer files to your server, the link below explains how to configure FileZilla (Windows, Linux and Mac OS X), WinSCP (Windows) and Cyberduck (Mac OS X). It is required to use your server's private SSH key to configure the SFTP client properly. Choose your preferred application and follow the steps in the link below to connect to the server through SFTP.

How to upload files to the server

How to enable HTTPS support with SSL certificates?

NOTE: The steps below assume that you are using a custom domain name and that you have already configured the custom domain name to point to your cloud server.

Bitnami images come with SSL support already pre-configured and with a dummy certificate in place. Although this dummy certificate is fine for testing and development purposes, you will usually want to use a valid SSL certificate for production use. You can either generate this on your own (explained here) or you can purchase one from a commercial certificate authority.

Once you obtain the certificate and certificate key files, you will need to update your server to use them. Follow these steps to activate SSL support:

  • Use the table below to identify the correct locations for your certificate and configuration files.

    Variable Value
    Current application URL https://[custom-domain]/
      Example: https://my-domain.com/ or https://my-domain.com/appname
    Apache configuration file /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/bitnami/bitnami.conf
    Certificate file /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.crt
    Certificate key file /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key
    CA certificate bundle file (if present) /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server-ca.crt
  • Copy your SSL certificate and certificate key file to the specified locations.

NOTE: If you use different names for your certificate and key files, you should reconfigure the SSLCertificateFile and SSLCertificateKeyFile directives in the corresponding Apache configuration file to reflect the correct file names.
  • If your certificate authority has also provided you with a PEM-encoded Certificate Authority (CA) bundle, you must copy it to the correct location in the previous table. Then, modify the Apache configuration file to include the following line below the SSLCertificateKeyFile directive. Choose the correct directive based on your scenario and Apache version:

    Variable Value
    Apache configuration file /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/bitnami/bitnami.conf
    Directive to include (Apache v2.4.8+) SSLCACertificateFile "/opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server-ca.crt"
    Directive to include (Apache < v2.4.8) SSLCertificateChainFile "/opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server-ca.crt"
NOTE: If you use a different name for your CA certificate bundle, you should reconfigure the SSLCertificateChainFile or SSLCACertificateFile directives in the corresponding Apache configuration file to reflect the correct file name.
  • Once you have copied all the server certificate files, you may make them readable by the root user only with the following commands:

     $ sudo chown root:root /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server*
    
     $ sudo chmod 600 /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server*
    
  • Open port 443 in the server firewall. Refer to the FAQ for more information.

  • Restart the Apache server.

You should now be able to access your application using an HTTPS URL.

How to create an SSL certificate?

You can create your own SSL certificate with the OpenSSL binary. A certificate request can then be sent to a certificate authority (CA) to get it signed into a certificate, or if you have your own certificate authority, you may sign it yourself, or you can use a self-signed certificate (because you just want a test certificate or because you are setting up your own CA).

  • Create your private key (if you haven't created it already):

     $ sudo openssl genrsa -out /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key 2048
    
  • Create a certificate:

     $ sudo openssl req -new -key /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key -out /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/cert.csr
    
    IMPORTANT: Enter the server domain name when the above command asks for the "Common Name".
  • Send cert.csr to the certificate authority. When the certificate authority completes their checks (and probably received payment from you), they will hand over your new certificate to you.

  • Until the certificate is received, create a temporary self-signed certificate:

     $ sudo openssl x509 -in /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/cert.csr -out /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.crt -req -signkey /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key -days 365
    
  • Back up your private key in a safe location after generating a password-protected version as follows:

     $ sudo openssl rsa -des3 -in /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key -out privkey.pem
    

    Note that if you use this encrypted key in the Apache configuration file, it will be necessary to enter the password manually every time Apache starts. Regenerate the key without password protection from this file as follows:

     $ sudo openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key
    

Find more information about certificates at http://www.openssl.org.

How to debug Apache errors?

Once Apache starts, it will create two log files at /opt/bitnami/apache2/logs/access_log and /opt/bitnami/apache2/logs/error_log respectively.

  • The access_log file is used to track client requests. When a client requests a document from the server, Apache records several parameters associated with the request in this file, such as: the IP address of the client, the document requested, the HTTP status code, and the current time.

  • The error_log file is used to record important events. This file includes error messages, startup messages, and any other significant events in the life cycle of the server. This is the first place to look when you run into a problem when using Apache.

If no error is found, you will see a message similar to:

Syntax OK

How to force HTTPS redirection?

Add the following to the top of the /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/conf/httpd-prefix.conf file:

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
RewriteRule ^/(.*) https://%{SERVER_NAME}/$1 [R,L]

After modifying the Apache configuration files, restart Apache to apply the changes.

How to debug Apache errors?

Once Apache starts, it will create two log files at /opt/bitnami/apache2/logs/access_log and /opt/bitnami/apache2/logs/error_log respectively.

  • The access_log file is used to track client requests. When a client requests a document from the server, Apache records several parameters associated with the request in this file, such as: the IP address of the client, the document requested, the HTTP status code, and the current time.

  • The error_log file is used to record important events. This file includes error messages, startup messages, and any other significant events in the life cycle of the server. This is the first place to look when you run into a problem when using Apache.

If no error is found, you will see a message similar to:

Syntax OK

How to modify PHP settings and install PHP modules?

The PHP configuration file allows you to configure the modules enabled, the email settings or the size of the upload files. It is located at /opt/bitnami/php/etc/php.ini.

To install a PHP module, the typical process is to install the module (either via the package manager or through a manual build/install process) and then activate it in the above configuration file. Find instructions for installing specific PHP modules on the PHP page.

NOTE: Bitnami stacks already include a number of PHP modules, which are installed but not active. Before installing a new module, check that it is not already included. If it exists, simply enable it in the PHP configuration file.

After modifying the PHP configuration file, restart both Apache and PHP-FPM for the changes to take effect:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart apache
$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart php-fpm

How to access phpMyAdmin?

For security reasons, phpMyAdmin is accessible only when using 127.0.0.1 as the hostname. To access it from a remote system, you must create an SSH tunnel that routes requests to the Apache Web server from 127.0.0.1. This implies that you must be able to connect to your server over SSH in order to access these applications remotely.

IMPORTANT: Before following the steps below, ensure that your Apache and MySQL servers are running.
NOTE: The steps below suggest using port 8888 for the SSH tunnel. If this port is already in use by another application on your local machine, replace it with any other port number greater than 1024 and modify the steps below accordingly. Similarly, if you have enabled Varnish, your stack's Apache Web server might be running on port 81. In this case, modify the steps below to use port 81 instead of port 80 for the tunnel endpoint.

Windows

To access the application using your Web browser, create an SSH tunnel, as described below.

  • Download PuTTY and make sure you can log in to the server console with it following the instructions in the FAQ. Once you have confirmed you are able to log in successfully, log back out.

  • Reconnect to the server using PuTTY, this time adapting the steps to include an additional SSH tunnel. When configuring the new SSH session in PuTTY, additionally navigate to the "Connection -> SSH -> Tunnels" section and create a secure tunnel by forwarding port 80 on the server to port 8888 on the local host (127.0.0.1 or localhost).

  • Click the "Add" button to add the secure tunnel configuration to the session. Here is an example:

    PuTTY configuration

  • Go back to the "Session" section and save your changes by clicking the "Save" button.

  • Click the "Open" button to open an SSH session to the server. The SSH session will now include a secure SSH tunnel between the two specified ports.

While the tunnel is active, you should be able to access the phpMyAdmin console through the secure SSH tunnel you created, by browsing to http://127.0.0.1:8888/phpmyadmin.

To log in, use username root for MySQL and the application password from the detail page for your cloud server.

If you are unable to access phpMyAdmin, verify that the SSH tunnel was created by checking the PuTTY event log (accessible via the "Event Log" menu):

PuTTY configuration

Linux and Mac OS X

To access the application using your Web browser, create an SSH tunnel, as described below.

  • Open a new terminal window on your local system (for example, using "Finder -> Applications -> Utilities -> Terminal" in Mac OS X or the Dash in Ubuntu).

  • Make sure you can log in to the server console following the instructions in the FAQ. Once you have confirmed you are able to log in successfully, log back out.

  • Run the following command to configure the SSH tunnel. Remember to replace SERVER-IP with the public IP address or hostname of your server. Enter your SSH password when prompted.

     $ ssh -N -L 8888:127.0.0.1:80 bitnami@SERVER-IP
    

    If you are using a private key to connect to the server, use the following command instead, remembering to replace KEYFILE with the path to your private key and SERVER-IP with the public IP address or hostname of your server:

     $ ssh -N -L 8888:127.0.0.1:80 -i KEYFILE bitnami@SERVER-IP
    
    NOTE: If successful, the above commands will create an SSH tunnel but will not display any output on the server console.

While the tunnel is active, you should be able to access the phpMyAdmin console through the secure SSH tunnel you created, by browsing to http://127.0.0.1:8888/phpmyadmin.

To log in, use username root for MySQL and the application password from the detail page for your cloud server.

How to translate Drupal to my language?

Drupal 7

Bitnami Drupal has already installed English and Spanish translations currently and we will work on adding more languages. Change the Drupal language from the administration interface as follows:

  • Configuration -> Modules -> Enable Locale module.
  • Configuration -> Languages -> Add a Language.
  • Choose your language.

Drupal 8

Change the Drupal language from the administration interface as follows:

  • Under the "Extend" tab, find the "Multilingual" section and enable the following modules:

    • Configuration Translation
    • Content Translation
    • Interface Translation
    • Language

Enabling translation modules

  • Click "Install" to install the modules.

  • Under the "Configuration" tab, select the "Regional and Language -> Languages" section.

Selecting Languages options

  • Click the "Add language" button.

Add new language

  • Select the language to be added from the selection list and click the "Add language" button.

    Once the language has been imported, you can use it by selecting it as the default language in the "Regional and Language -> Languages" section.

Select new language as default

How to install a module on Drupal?

Drupal 7

To install a module in Drupal 7, copy and uncompress it in the /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs/modules folder. Then, enable the module in the "Modules" section of the Drupal administration panel.

Drupal 8

To install a module in Drupal 8, follow these steps:

  • Locate and filter the module you want to install. Find a list of available modules at the Drupal module directory.

  • Download it to your local computer.

  • Use the filter options in order to find the module. Once you find it, click on the module name to see the details. Select the version and the file format. Here's an example.

Download new module from Drupal module directory

  • Visit your site and log into your Drupal 8 admin interface. In the Administration menu navigate to the "Extend" tab. Click the "+Install new module" button.

Install new module

  • Browse to the downloaded file and select it. Click the "Install" button to complete the installation.

Select new module

  • Once the installation is complete a popup window shows a confirmation message:

New module is installed

  • Return to the modules list in the "Extend" page and locate your module. Enable it and click the "Install" button.

Enable new module

How to upgrade Drupal?

Drupal 7

NOTE: Drupal 7.52 was released in response to the discovery of security vulnerabilities. It is strongly recommended to install the latest version if you use Drupal 7.x prior to 7.52. Check Drupal Security Advisories for more information.

It is advisable to create a backup before starting the update process. If you have important data, create and try to restore a backup to ensure that everything works properly.

Upgrade using Drush

You can upgrade the application only without modifying any other stack components. Starting with Drupal v7.12-3, the Bitnami Drupal Stack ships drush, a command-line shell and scripting interface for Drupal. To upgrade Drupal with drush, use the following commands:

$ cd /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs/
$ drush update

More information is available on the Drush website.

Upgrade using built-in tools

To upgrade Drupal without drush, use Drupal's built-in mechanism for upgrades by following the steps below:

  • Log in to the Drupal administration panel.

  • Browse to the "Administration -> Configuration -> Development -> Maintenance mode" section. Enable the "Put site into maintenance mode" checkbox and save the configuration.

  • At the server console, download the new Drupal version:

    $ wget http://ftp.drupal.org/files/projects/drupal-X.Y.tar.gz
    $ tar -xzvf drupal-X.Y.tar.gz
    
  • Create a backup of the .htaccess and settings.php files:

    $ cp /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs/.htaccess /home/bitnami/.htaccess.backup
    $ cp /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs/sites/default/settings.php /home/bitnami/settings.php.backup
    
  • Overwrite the old Drupal installation with the new files:

    $ sudo cp -R drupal-X.Y/* /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs/
    
  • In case your older installation used custom .htaccess or settings.php files, restore them from backup.

  • In the Drupal administration panel, browse to the "Report -> Status" section and run the database update script if necessary.

    Drupal upgrade

  • Browse to the "Administration -> Configuration -> Development -> Maintenance mode" section and disable maintenance mode.

Drupal 8

NOTE: Some security vulnerabilities has been discovered in 8.x versions prior to 8.2.3. It is imperative to upgrade immediately to the latest version. Check Drupal Security Advisories and Drupal 8.2.3 Release notes for more information.
Upgrade using Drush

You can update Drupal core with a minor version change using drush a command-line shell and scripting interface for Drupal that is already included in Bitnami Drupal Stack. To upgrade Drupal with drush, follow the steps below:

  • Log in to the Drupal administration panel.

  • Browse to the "Administration -> Configuration -> Development -> Maintenance mode" section. Enable the "Put site into maintenance mode" checkbox and save the configuration:

Drupal Maintenance mode

Enable the Maintenance mode

  • Create a backup of the .htaccess, settings.php and robots.txt files:

      $ cp /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs/.htaccess /home/bitnami/.htaccess.backup
      $ cp /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs//sites/default/settings.php /home/bitnami/settings.php.backup
      $ cp /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs//robots.txt /home/bitnami/robots.txt.backup
    
  • Upgrade the application using drush updating command:

      $ drush pm-update
    
  • In the Drupal administration panel navigate to the "Report -> Status" section to check that your site has been successfully updated.

Drupal Report Status: successful update

  • You can also check it in the "Report -> Available updates -> Update" section.

Drupal projects are up to date

  • Restore the backup of the .htaccess and robots.txt files:

      $ cp /home/bitnami/.htaccess.backup /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs/.htaccess
      $ cp /home/bitnami/robots.txt.backup /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs/robots.txt
    
  • Browse to the "Administration -> Configuration -> Development -> Maintenance mode" section and disable maintenance mode.

How to optimize Drupal?

Drupal 7

Activate "Normal Caching mode" in the "Site Configuration -> Performance" section.