Bitnami Redis Installer

NOTE: Before running the commands shown on this page, you should load the Bitnami stack environment by executing the installdir/use_APPNAME script (Linux and Mac OS X) or by clicking the shortcut in the Start Menu under "Start -> Bitnami APPNAME Stack -> Application console" (Windows). Learn more.
NOTE: When running the commands shown on this page, replace the installdir placeholder with the full installation directory for your Bitnami stack.

Description

Redis is an open source, advanced key-value store. It is often referred to as a data structure server since keys can contain strings, hashes, lists, sets and sorted sets.

First steps with the Bitnami Redis Stack

Welcome to your new Bitnami application! Here are a few questions (and answers!) you might need when first starting with your application.

What are the system requirements?

Before you download and install your application, check that your system meets these requirements.

How do I install the Bitnami Redis Stack?

Windows, OS X and Linux installer
  • Download the executable file for the Bitnami Redis Stack from the Bitnami website.

  • Run the downloaded file:

    • On Linux, give the installer executable permissions and run the installation file in the console.
    • On other platforms, double-click the installer and follow the instructions shown.

Check the FAQ instructions on how to download and install a Bitnami Stack for more details.

The application will be installed to the following default directories:

Operating System Directory
Windows C:\Bitnami\APPNAME-VERSION
Mac OS X /Applications/APPNAME-VERSION
Linux /opt/APPNAME-VERSION (running as root user)
OS X VM
  • Download the OS X VM file for the Bitnami Redis Stack from the Bitnami website.
  • Begin the installation process by double-clicking the image file and dragging the WordPress OS X VM icon to the Applications folder.
  • Launch the VM by double-clicking the icon in the Applications folder.

What credentials do I need?

You need application credentials, consisting of a username and password. These credentials allow you to log in to your new Bitnami application.

What is the administrator username set for me to log in to the application for the first time?

  • For Windows, Linux and OS X installers, the username was configured by you when you first installed the application.
  • For OS X VMs, the username can be obtained by clicking the Bitnami badge at the bottom right corner of the application welcome page.

What is the administrator password?

  • For Windows, Linux and OS X installers, the password was configured by you when you first installed the application.
  • For OS X VMs, the password can be obtained by clicking the Bitnami badge at the bottom right corner of the application welcome page.

How to start or stop the services?

Linux

Bitnami native installers include a graphical tool to manage services. This tool is named manager-linux-x64.run on Linux and is located in the installation directory. To use this tool, double-click the file and then use the graphical interface to start, stop or restart services. Server log messages can be checked in the "Server Events" tab.

Management tool

The native installer also includes a command-line script to start, stop and restart applications, named ctlscript.sh. This script can be found in the installation directory and accepts the options start, stop, restart, and status. To use it, log in to the server console and execute it following the examples below:

  • Call it without any service names to start all services:

      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
  • Use it to restart a specific service only by passing the service name as argument - for example, mysql, postgresql or apache:

      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart mysql
      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart postgresql
      $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart apache
    
  • Obtain current status of all services:

      $ installdir/ctlscript.sh status
    

The list of available services varies depending on the required components for each application.

Mac OS X

Bitnami native installers include a graphical tool to manage services. This tool is named manager-osx on Mac OS X and is located in the installation directory. To use this tool, double-click the file and then use the graphical interface to start, stop or restart services. Server log messages can be checked in the "Server Events" tab.

Management tool

The native installer also includes a command-line script to start, stop and restart applications, named ctlscript.sh. This script can be found in the installation directory and accepts the options start, stop, restart, and status. To use it, log in to the server console and execute it following the examples below:

  • Call it without any service names to start all services:

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
  • Use it to restart a specific service only by passing the service name as argument - for example, mysql or apache:

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart mysql
     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart apache
    
  • Obtain current status of all services:

     $ installdir/ctlscript.sh status
    

The list of available services varies depending on the required components for each application.

NOTE: If you are using the stack manager for Mac OS X-VM, please check the following blog post to learn how to manage services from its graphical tool.

Windows

Bitnami native installers include a graphical tool to manage services. This tool is named manager-windows.exe on Windows and is located in the installation directory. To use this tool, double-click the file and then use the graphical interface to start, stop or restart services. Server log messages can be checked in the "Server Events" tab.

Management tool

The Windows native installer creates shortcuts to start and stop services created in the Start Menu, under "Programs -> Bitnami APPNAME Stack -> Bitnami Service". Servers can also be managed from the Windows "Services" control panel. Services are named using the format APPNAMESERVICENAME, where APPNAME is a placeholder for the application name and SERVICENAME is a placeholder for the service name. For example, the native installer for the Bitnami WordPress Stack installs services named wordpressApache and wordpressMySQL.

These services will be automatically started during boot. To modify this behaviour, refer to the section on disabling services on Windows.

What is the default configuration?

By default, the Redis server is configured to run on the default port 6379. You can connect to the server locally or remotely using the redis-cli command line tool Replace the YOURPASSWORD placeholder with the value of your password.

$ redis-cli -h localhost -a YOURPASSWORD

The Redis server is configured following the security guidelines from the official Redis documentation. Although you use a password to connect to the server, it is strongly recommended to change your firewall policies to only accept connections from the IP address that you are using to connect to the Redis server.

Redis version

In order to check which Redis version your machine is running, execute the following command from the console:

$ redis-server -v

Redis configuration file

The Redis configuration file is located at installdir/redis/etc/redis.conf.

Redis port

The default port on which Redis listens is 6379.

Redis log file

The Redis log file is created at installdir/redis/var/log/redis-server.log.

Security information

In order to improve the security of this component, we have renamed the commands CONFIG, FLUSHDB and FLUSHALL to empty strings. This is done to avoid potentially harmful actions with those commands. To modify this behavior, edit the Redis configuration file redis.conf.

You can find more information and recommendations about Redis security on the official website.

How to connect to the Redis server?

Connect to Redis from the same computer where it is installed with the redis-cli client tool. Replace the YOURPASSWORD placeholder with the value of your password:

$ redis-cli -a YOURPASSWORD
127.0.0.1:6379>

Once connected, use the Redis get and set commands to save and retrieve keys and their values. Here's an example:

127.0.0.1:6379> set foo bar
OK
127.0.0.1:6379> get foo
"bar"

How to connect to Redis from a different machine?

IMPORTANT: Bitnami Native Installers do not modify the firewall configuration of your computer, therefore the Redis ports could be open which is a significant security risk. You are strongly advised to close the Redis ports (refer to the FAQ for more information on this).

Once you have an active SSH tunnel or if you did not close the port for remote access, you can then connect to Redis using a command like the one below. Replace the YOURPASSWORD placeholder with the value of your password:

$ redis-cli -h localhost -a YOURPASSWORD

How to change the Redis password?

You can modify the Redis password by editing the requirepass directive in the installdir/redis/etc/redis.conf file. Replace the NEWPASSWORD placeholder with the value of your new password:

requirepass NEWPASSWORD

Then restart the Redis server:

$ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart redis
  • (Optional) If you don't want to restart the Redis service, appart from changing the configuration file, you can execute the following command to change the password at runtime. Replace the CURRENTPASSWORD and NEWPASSWORD placeholders with the values of the current password and your new password:

    $ redis-cli -a CURRENTPASSWORD CONFIG set requirepass NEWPASSWORD

How to change Redis persistence mode?

You can change the modes to adapt Redis persistence to your needs. There are multiple possibilities to do so. Find below how to enable AOF as an example:

  • Edit the configuration file installdir/redis/etc/redis.conf. Change the appendonly configuration directive from no to yes:

      appendonly yes
    
  • Edit the Redis configuration file installdir/redis/etc/redis.conf. Change the appendonly configuration directive from no to yes as shown below:

      appendonly yes
    

    This change will apply when you restart the server.

  • (Optional) To apply the change inmediately, execute the following command. Replace the YOURPASSWORD placeholder with the value of your password:

      $ redis-cli -a YOURPASSWORD CONFIG set appendonly yes
    

For more information on this, please check the Redis official documentation about Redis Persistence.

How to create a Redis cluster?

From Redis 3.x, it is possible to create a cluster of Redis nodes in master-slave mode. The minimum configuration required is a 6-node cluster with 3 masters and 3 slaves. This section will introduce you to creating a simple redis cluster. For further information, please refer to http://redis.io/topics/cluster-tutorial and http://redis.io/topics/cluster-spec.

Pre-requisites

Ruby must be installed with the Redis gem. Install these components with the commands below:

  • Debian:

    $ sudo apt-get install ruby
    $ sudo gem install redis
    
  • CentOS:

    $ sudo yum install ruby
    $ sudo yum install redis
    

Manual approach

Use the following template and place it in your desired location.

  • Create the following folder structure:

      $ mkdir -p my-cluster
      $ cd my-cluster
      $ mkdir PORT-1 PORT-2 PORT-3 PORT-4 PORT-5 PORT-6
    
  • In every PORT-* folder, create a configuration file. Name it whatever you wish (eg. PORT-x.conf) and fill it with this content:

      port PORT-x
      cluster-enabled yes
      cluster-config-file nodes-PORT-x.conf
      cluster-node-timeout 5000
      appendonly yes
    
  • Start a Redis server (node) in each port. This will open the normal port for client connection and the cluster-bus port (10000 + PORT-x), used between nodes to communicate.

      $ cd PORT-x
      $ ../redis-server ./PORT-x.conf
    
  • Execute the cluster manager (redis-trib.rb) located in the installdir/redis/bin directory:

      $ ./redis-trib.rb create --replicas 1 127.0.0.1:PORT1 127.0.0.1:PORT-2 127.0.0.1:PORT-3 127.0.0.1:PORT-4 127.0.0.1:PORT-5 127.0.0.1:PORT-6
    
  • Connect to each node in the cluster as usual.

Automatic approach

Redis comes with a tool named create-cluster, located at installdir/scripts/create-cluster. This allows you to avoid the manual configuration described above.

By default, this utility will create 6 nodes with 1 replica and will start creating nodes on port 30000. In order to not modify the utility, is recommended to create a config.sh script in the same folder as create-cluster with the following content:

PORT=STARTING-PORT-NUMBER
TIMEOUT=2000
NODES=6
REPLICAS=1

Start the node and create the cluster:

$ ./create-cluster start
$ ./create-cluster create

Stop the cluster:

$ ./create-cluster stop

Clean up the folder:

$ ./create-cluster clean

How can I run a command in the Bitnami Redis Stack?

Load the Bitnami Console and then run the command as usual.

How to test Redis with a client?

You can test your Redis installation with a client like Predis, which is written in PHP. Find a complete list of Redis clients here.

NOTE: To use the example script below, you must have PHP installed on the server. You can check this by executing php -v. If you don't have it available, you can easily install PHP on Debian with the command sudo apt-get install php5 or on CentOS with the command sudo yum install php.

Begin by extracting the contents of the downloaded archive and creating a simple script named example.php.

$ cd predis-1.0
$ nano example.php

The script begins by including the class autoloader file and instantiating an object of the class:

require 'autoload.php';
$client = new Predis\Client(array(
  'host' => '127.0.0.1',
  'port' => 6379,
  'password' => 'PASSWORD'
));

Notice that it configures the client object by defining the Redis server host, port and password. Replace these values with actual values for your server.

You can now use the object's set() and get() methods to add or remove values from the cache. In this example, the set() method stores the value 'cowabunga' using the key 'foo'. The key can then be used with the get() method to retrieve the original value whenever needed.

$client->set('foo', 'cowabunga');
$response = $client->get('foo');

Here's the complete code for the example.php script:

<?php
require 'autoload.php';
$client = new Predis\Client(array(
  'host' => '127.0.0.1',
  'port' => 6379,
  'password' => 'PASSWORD'
));
$client->set('foo', 'cowabunga');
$response = $client->get('foo');
echo $response;
?>

Save the file and run it.

$ php example.php

The script will connect to your Redis server, save the value to the key 'foo', then retrieve and display it.

How to load a module to Redis?

You can extend your Redis solution using the Redis modules. Thus, you can implement new features and add new functionalities to your application.

Follow the instructions below to load a module to Redis:

IMPORTANT: Before follow the steps below, you must compile the source code of the module. Check the Redis Modules official documentation for more information on this.
  • Once you have the compiled module library (module.so), the recommended way to load the module is during the startup of Redis by adding the following configuration directive to the configuration file installdir/redis/etc/redis.conf:

      loadmodule /path/to/the/module.so
    

    The configuration will take effect in the next time you restart Redis.

  • (Optional) To load the module at runtime (with no downtime), execute the following command. Replace the YOURPASSWORD placeholder with the value of your password:

      $ redis-cli -a YOURPASSWORD MODULE LOAD /path/to/the/module.so
    

For more ways to load modules, please check the oficial documentation Redis Modules: Loading modules.

How to create a full backup of Redis?

The Bitnami Redis Stack is self-contained and the simplest option for performing a backup is to copy or compress the Bitnami stack installation directory. To do so in a safe manner, you will need to stop all servers, so this method may not be appropriate if you have people accessing the application continuously.

NOTE: If you want to create only a database backup, refer to these instructions for MySQL and PostgreSQL.

Backup on Linux and Mac OS X

Follow these steps:

  • Change to the directory in which you wish to save your backup.

     $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers.

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh stop
    
  • Create a compressed file with the stack contents.

     $ sudo tar -pczvf application-backup.tar.gz installdir
    
  • Start all servers.

     $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
  • Download or transfer the application-backup.tar.gz file to a safe location.

You should now download or transfer the application-backup.tar.gz file to a safe location.

Backup on Windows

Follow these steps:

  • Stop all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

  • Create a compressed file with the stack contents. You can use a graphical tool like 7-Zip or WinZip or just right-click the folder, click "Send to", and select the "Compressed (zipped) folder" option.

  • Download or transfer the compressed file to a safe location.

  • Start all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

Restore on Linux and Mac OS X

Follow these steps:

  • Change to the directory containing your backup:

    $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers.

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh stop
    
  • Move the current stack to a different location:

    $ sudo mv installdir /tmp/bitnami-backup
    
  • Uncompress the backup file to the original directory:

    $ sudo tar -pxzvf application-backup.tar.gz -C /
    
  • Start all servers.

    $ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh start
    
IMPORTANT: When restoring, remember to maintain the original permissions for the files and folders. For example, if you originally installed the stack as the root user on Linux, make sure that the restored files are owned by root as well.

Restore on Windows

  • Change to the directory containing your backup:

       $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

  • Uninstall the previous services by executing the following command:

        $ serviceinstall.bat
    
  • Create a safe folder named Backups in the desktop and move the current stack to it. Remember to replace PATH with the right location of your folder:

        $ move installdir \PATH\Backups
    
  • Uncompress the backup file using a tool like 7-Zip or Winzip or just double-click the .zip file to uncompress it, and move it to the original directory.
  • Install services by running the following commands from an elevated command prompt:

      $ cd installdir
      $ serviceinstall.bat INSTALL
    
  • Start all servers using the shortcuts in the Start Menu or the graphical manager tool.

How to change the Redis password?

You can modify the Redis password by editing the requirepass directive in the installdir/redis/etc/redis.conf file. Replace the NEWPASSWORD placeholder with the value of your new password:

requirepass NEWPASSWORD

Then restart the Redis server:

$ sudo installdir/ctlscript.sh restart redis
  • (Optional) If you don't want to restart the Redis service, appart from changing the configuration file, you can execute the following command to change the password at runtime. Replace the CURRENTPASSWORD and NEWPASSWORD placeholders with the values of the current password and your new password:

    $ redis-cli -a CURRENTPASSWORD CONFIG set requirepass NEWPASSWORD

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