How to connect to the server through SSH?

NOTE: The steps below assume that your CenturyLink Cloud server has a public IP address and an open SSH port. For more information, refer to the instructions on how to configure a public IP address and open the SSH port.

Obtaining your SSH credentials for your client

Obtaining your SSH credentials from the Bitnami Launchpad

The Bitnami Launchpad for CenturyLink Cloud automatically injects an auto-generated SSH pasword for the root user and allows the user to download the private SSH key. To do so, follow these steps:

  • Browse to the Bitnami Launchpad for CenturyLink Cloud and sign in if required using your Bitnami account credentials.
  • Select the "Virtual Machines" menu item.
  • Select your cloud server from the resulting list.
  • Note the server IP address and SSH password on the resulting page. By default, the SSH username is root.

    SSH credentials

If you are using the CenturyLink Control Portal, follow these steps:

  • Browse to the CenturyLink Control Portal and sign in if required using your CenturyLink Cloud account credentials.
  • Enter the name of your server in the search box at the top of the page, or select the server from the region and group list.
  • On the server detail page, obtain the public IP address. It is important to use the public IP address and not the internal IP address.

    CenturyLink IP address

  • On the same page, click the "show admin credentials" button. Note the username and password displayed.

    SSH credentials

Connecting with an SSH client

Connecting with an SSH client on Windows

In order to access your server via SSH tunnel you need an SSH client. In the instructions below we have selected PuTTY, a free SSH client for Windows and UNIX platforms. To access the server via SSH tunnel using PuTTY on a specific port using an SSH tunnel, you need to have it configured in order to allow connections to your server.

  • Step 1: Obtain PuTTY

    • Download the PuTTY ZIP archive from its website.
    • Extract the contents to a folder on your desktop.
    • Double-click the putty.exe file to bring up the PuTTY configuration window.
  • Step 2: Configure PuTTY

    • In the PuTTY configuration window, enter the host name or public IP address of your server into the "Host Name (or IP address)" field, as well as into the "Saved Sessions" field. Then, click "Save" to save the new session so you can reuse it later.

    PuTTY configuration

    • In the "Connection -> Data" section, enter the username root into the "Auto-login username" field, under the "Login details" section.

      PuTTY configuration

  • In the "Session" section, click on the "Save" button to save the current configuration.
  • Select the session you want to start (in case that you have saved more than one session) and click the "Open" button to open an SSH session to the server.

    PuTTY configuration

PuTTY will first ask you to confirm the server's host key and add it to the cache. Go ahead and click "Yes" to this request (learn more).

PuTTY connection

  • Enter the SSH password when prompted. Refer to the FAQ to learn how to obtain your SSH credentials for your client.

You should now be logged in to your server. Here is an example of what you'll see:

PuTTY connection

Connecting with an SSH client on Linux and Mac OS X

Linux and Mac OS X come bundled with SSH clients by default. In order to log in to your server, follow the steps below:

  • Open a new terminal window on your local system (for example, using "Finder -> Applications -> Utilities -> Terminal" in Mac OS X or the Dash in Ubuntu).
  • Connect to the server using the following command:

      $ ssh root@SERVER-IP
    

    Remember to replace SERVER-IP with the public IP address or hostname of your server.

  • Your SSH client might ask you to confirm the server's host key and add it to the cache before connecting. Accept this request by typing or selecting "Yes" (learn more).
  • Enter your SSH password when prompted. Refer to the FAQ to learn how to obtain your SSH credentials for your client.

You should now be logged in to your server. Here is an example of what you'll see:

SSH connection

How to access a server using an SSH tunnel?

Bitnami strongly discourages you from opening server ports apart from those defined by default. In case you need to access a server on a specific port remotely, Bitnami recommends creating an SSH tunnel instead of opening the port in the server firewall.

Depending on your operating system, follow these instructions to create an SSH tunnel and ensure secure access to the application.

IMPORTANT: Before following the steps below, ensure that your application server is running.

Accessing a server using an SSH tunnel on Windows

In order to access your server via SSH tunnel you need an SSH client. In the instructions below we have selected PuTTY, a free SSH client for Windows and UNIX platforms.

Once you have your SSH client correctly configured and you tested that you can successfully access to your instance via SSH, you need to create an SSH tunnel. For doing so, follow these steps:

  • In the "Connection -> SSH -> Tunnels" section, create a secure tunnel by forwarding a port (the "destination port") on the remote server to a port (the "source port") on the local host (127.0.0.1 or localhost). An example of configuring an SSH tunnel between remote port 80 and local port 8888 is displayed below.

    PuTTY safe tunneling

  • Click the "Add" button to add the secure tunnel configuration to the session. (You'll see the added port in the list of "Forwarded ports"). An example of configuring an SSH tunnel between remote port 80 and local port 8888 is displayed below.

    PuTTY safe tunneling

  • In the "Session" section, save your changes by clicking the "Save" button.
  • Click the "Open" button to open an SSH session to the server. The SSH session will now include a secure SSH tunnel between the two specified ports.

While the tunnel is active, you should be able to access the application through the secure SSH tunnel you created, by browsing to http://127.0.0.1:SOURCE-PORT/ or http://localhost:SOURCE-PORT/. Remember to replace SOURCE-PORT with the source port number specified.

Accessing a server using an SSH tunnel on Linux and Mac OS X

To access the server on a specific port using an SSH tunnel, you need to have the following information:

Once you have the information above, follow these instructions to access the server using an SSH tunnel:

  • Open a new terminal window on your local system (for example, using "Finder -> Applications -> Utilities -> Terminal" in Mac OS X or the Dash in Ubuntu).
  • Run the following command. Remember to replace SOURCE-PORT with the source port, DESTINATION-PORT with the destination port, and SERVER-IP with the public IP address or hostname of your server. remembering to replace SERVER-IP with the public IP address or host. Enter your SSH password when prompted.

          $ ssh -N -L SOURCE-PORT:127.0.0.1:DESTINATION-PORT root@SERVER-IP
    
NOTE: If successful, the above commands will create an SSH tunnel but will not display any output on the server console.

While the tunnel is active, you should be able to access the server through the secure SSH tunnel you created, by browsing to http://127.0.0.1:SOURCE-PORT or http://localhost:SOURCE-PORT/. Remember to replace SOURCE-PORT with the source port number specified.

How to find application credentials?

Using the Bitnami Launchpad

If you are using the Bitnami Launchpad for CenturyLink Cloud, your default credentials become available once you create a cloud server. To find them, follow these steps:

  • Browse to the Bitnami Launchpad for CenturyLink Cloud and sign in if required using your Bitnami account.
  • Select the "Virtual Machines" menu item.
  • Select your cloud server from the resulting list.
  • The "Application Info" section in the left panel contains the credentials for your instance. The password is hidden by default but will be displayed in plain text when the "Show" button, adjacent to the password input, is clicked.

    Server credentials

If you are using the CenturyLink Control Portal, when creating and deploying a new server, you will have the opportunity to specify the application username and password.

Server credentials

IMPORTANT: The application username and password will not be displayed again, so note them carefully for future reference.

How to find database credentials?

Database username

If you started a server (for example, MongoDB or similar) that isn't a Web application server or your application includes a database server, you can use the default administrator user to log in to the database (for example, root). In the table below you will find the username for the most popular databases:

Database Username
MySQL, MariaDB, MongoDB root
PostgreSQL postgres

You can find more information for each specific server in our documentation.

Database password

The database password is the same as the administrator password you use to log in to your application.

What is a Bitnami image?

A Bitnami image includes everything you need to run your Bitnami-packaged application of choice. The installation and configuration of all of the software included in the stack is completely automated, making it easy for everyone, including those who are not very technical, to get them up and running.

All Bitnami images are completely self-contained and run independently of the rest of the software or libraries installed on your system. This means that you don't have to worry about installing any other software on your system to make the new application work. They also won't interfere with any software already installed on the system, so everything will continue to work normally.

How to start or stop the services?

Each Bitnami stack includes a control script that lets you easily stop, start and restart services. The script is located at /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh. Call it without any service name arguments to start all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start

Or use it to restart a single service, such as Apache only, by passing the service name as argument:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart apache

Use this script to stop all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop

Restart the services by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart

Obtain a list of available services and operations by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh

What is the directory structure?

The installation process will create several sub-directories under the /opt/bitnami directory:

  • Servers and related tools: apache2/, mysql/, postgresql/, apache-tomcat/, etc.
  • Languages: php/, python/, ruby/, tcl/, etc.
  • Application files: apps/phpMyAdmin/, apps/drupal/, apps/joomla/, apps/redmine/, etc.
  • Common libraries: common/
  • Licenses of the components included in the stack: licenses/

Application files are stored in the /opt/bitnami/apps/APPNAME/htdocs directory. The configuration file for the Apache Web server is stored in the /opt/bitnami/apps/APPNAME/conf/ directory.

How to open the server ports for remote access?

IMPORTANT: Making this application's network ports public is a significant security risk. You are strongly advised to only allow access to those ports from trusted networks. If, for development purposes, you need to access from outside of a trusted network, please do not allow access to those ports via a public IP address. Instead, use a secure channel such as a VPN or an SSH tunnel. Follow these instructions to remotely connect safely and reliably.

NOTE: The steps below assume that your CenturyLink Cloud server has a public IP address. For more information, refer to the instructions on how to configure a public IP address.

By default, cloud servers launched through the Bitnami Launchpad for CenturyLink Cloud or using Bitnami Blueprints have their ports closed to secure them against external attacks. This is done for all ports apart from ports 22 (SSH), 80 (HTTP) and 443 (HTTPS). In some cases, ports needed for specific applications to operate properly are also left open by default.

If you need to access your server remotely using a different port, you must first open the necessary port(s) using the CenturyLink Control Portal. Follow these steps:

  • Log in to the CenturyLink Control Portal.

  • Enter the name of your server in the search box at the top of the page, or select the server from the region and group list.

  • On the server detail page, click the public IP address for the server.

    CenturyLink IP address

  • In the resulting IP configuration section, click the "custom port…" button.

    CenturyLink firewall configuration

  • Choose whether you wish to open a specific port or a range of ports, and enter the port number(s).
  • Click the "update ip address" button. This will add your request to the queue.

    CenturyLink firewall configuration

You'll now be redirected to a status page which shows you the current status of your request. Once the request is processed, the ports will be opened for the selected IP address.

How to close the server ports and deny remote access?

NOTE: The steps below assume that your CenturyLink Cloud server has a public IP address. For more information, refer to the instructions on how to configure a public IP address.

To close a server port and deny remote access on that port, follow these steps:

  • Log in to the CenturyLink Control Portal.

  • Enter the name of your server in the search box at the top of the page, or select the server from the region and group list.

  • On the server detail page, click the public IP address for the server.

    CenturyLink IP address

  • In the resulting IP configuration section, deselect the ports you wish to close or, if they are custom ports, click the cross next to each port to delete it.

    CenturyLink firewall configuration

  • Click the "update ip address" button. This will add your request to the queue.

You'll now be redirected to a status page which shows you the current status of your request. Once the request is processed, the ports will be closed for the selected IP address.

How to upload files to the server with SFTP?

NOTE: Bitnami applications can be found in /opt/bitnami/apps.
NOTE: The steps below assume that your CenturyLink Cloud server has a public IP address and an open SSH port. For more information, refer to the instructions on how to configure a public IP address and open the SSH port.

The first step is to ensure that you have the SSH credentials for your server.

If you are using the Bitnami Launchpad for CenturyLink Cloud, follow these steps:

  • Browse to the Bitnami Launchpad for CenturyLink Cloud and sign in if required using your Bitnami account credentials.

  • Select the "Virtual Machines" menu item.

  • Select your cloud server from the resulting list.

  • Note the server IP address and SSH password on the resulting page. By default, the SSH username is root.

    SSH credentials

If you are using the CenturyLink Control Portal, follow these steps:

  • Browse to the CenturyLink Control Portal and sign in if required using your CenturyLink Cloud account credentials.

  • Enter the name of your server in the search box at the top of the page, or select the server from the region and group list.

  • On the server detail page, obtain the public IP address. It is important to use the public IP address and not the internal IP address.

    CenturyLink IP address

  • On the same page, click the "show admin credentials" button. Note the username and password displayed.

    SSH credentials

Although you can use any SFTP/SCP client to transfer files to your server, this guide documents FileZilla (Windows, Linux and Mac OS X), WinSCP (Windows) and Cyberduck (Mac OS X).

Using a Password

Once you have your server's SSH credentials, choose your preferred application and follow the steps below to connect to the server using SFTP.

FileZilla

Follow these steps:

  • Download and install FileZilla.
  • Launch FileZilla and use the "File -> Site Manager -> New Site" command to bring up the FileZilla Site Manager, where you can set up a connection to your server.
  • Enter your server host name.
  • Select "SFTP" as the protocol and "Ask for password" as the logon type. Specify root as the user name and enter the server password.

    FileZilla configuration

  • Use the "Connect" button to connect to the server and begin an SFTP session. You might need to accept the server key, by clicking "Yes" or "OK" to proceed.

You should now be logged into the /root directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

If you have problems accessing your server, get extra information by use the "Edit -> Settings -> Debug" menu to activate FileZilla's debug log.

FileZilla debug log

WinSCP

Follow these steps:

  • Download and install WinSCP.
  • Launch WinSCP and in the "Session" panel, select "SCP" as the file protocol.
  • Enter your server host name and specify root as the user name. Enter the corresponding password as well.

    WinSCP configuration

  • From the "Session" panel, use the "Login" button to connect to the server and begin an SCP session.

You should now be logged into the /root directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

Cyberduck

Follow these steps:

  • Select the "Open Connection" command and specify "SFTP" as the connection protocol.

    Cyberduck configuration

  • In the connection details panel, enter the server IP address, the username root and the SSH password.

    Cyberduck configuration

  • Use the "Connect" button to connect to the server and begin an SFTP session.

You should now be logged into the /root directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

How to block a suspicious IP address?

NOTE: The steps below should be performed on all instances that receive inbound Internet traffic.

If you have detected an IP address that is collapsing your server or just making suspicious requests, block it using iptables. To do this, run the following command:

$ sudo su
$ iptables -A INPUT -s 1.2.3.4 -j DROP

Remember to replace 1.2.3.4 with the IP address you want to block.

IMPORTANT: Use with caution. If you don't specify an IP address, you will block yourself.

This will block all requests from that IP address. To have your iptables rules active even after rebooting the server, follow these steps:

  • Execute these commands:

     $ sudo su
     $ iptables-save > /opt/bitnami/iptables-rules
     $ crontab -e
    
  • Edit the above file with your favourite editor and include this line at the end of the file:

     @reboot /sbin/iptables-restore < /opt/bitnami/iptables-rules
    
  • Save the file and exit.

Now, on every boot, the system will load and apply the iptables rules.

To delete a rule, run the following command:

$ sudo su
$ iptables -D INPUT -s 1.2.3.4 -j DROP

This will delete the rule. Remember to replace 1.2.3.4 with a valid IP address.

Rerun the iptables-save command shown previously to make the new rules active even after rebooting the server.

How to configure a custom domain?

To use a custom domain with a server started through the Bitnami Launchpad, follow these steps:

Configure a static IP address for your cloud server

Follow these instructions.

Configure the domain in your DNS provider

The next step is to update your domain's DNS settings, specifically by adding an A record that points to the static IP address of your cloud server.

This change can only be accomplished through your domain name provider; it cannot be made through the Bitnami Launchpad. You will therefore need to log in to your domain name provider's management console and make the necessary changes. Step-by-step instructions for some popular providers are listed below:

Remember that once you make the necessary changes, it can take up to 48 hours for the change to propagate across other DNS servers. You can verify the new DNS record by using the Global DNS Propagation Checker and entering your domain name into the search field.

At the end of this step, entering your custom domain name into the browser address bar should take you to your Bitnami application on the cloud server, as shown below:

Custom domain in browser

Update application configuration

For some applications, such as Prestashop, it is also necessary to perform additional configuration so that the application "knows" its domain and the domain name is correctly reflected in application URLs. This is easily accomplished with the command-line Bitnami Configuration tool, bnconfig, which will update the application configuration and database to use the new domain wherever needed.

To use this tool, follow these steps:

  • Log in to your server console (instructions).
  • Change to your application directory, usually located under /opt/bitnami/apps/APP-NAME.
  • Execute the following command:

     $ sudo ./bnconfig --machine_hostname DOMAIN-NAME
    

For example, to configure Prestashop to use the domain my-shop.com, use the commands below:

$ cd /opt/bitnami/apps/prestashop
$ sudo ./bnconfig --machine_hostname my-shop.com

Or, to configure your WordPress Multisite blog to use the primary domain my-blog.com, use the commands below:

$ cd /opt/bitnami/apps/wordpress
$ sudo ./bnconfig --machine_hostname my-blog.com

How to backup a server?

IMPORTANT: We strongly recommend creating a backup of your server prior to any major changes or upgrades.

Snapshots provide an easy way to backup and restore a server to an earlier state. To create a snapshot, follow these steps:

  • Log in to the CenturyLink Control Portal.

  • Enter the name of your server in the search box at the top of the page, or select the server from the region and group list.

  • On the server detail page, click the "add" button in the "Snapshot" section.

    Server backup

  • In the resulting dialog, select the period for which the snapshot should be kept. The maximum is 10 days.

  • Click the "create snapshot" button to create the snapshot.

    Server backup

This will add your request to the queue and a snapshot will shortly be created. Once a snapshot has been created, it will appear in the server detail page in the "Snapshot" section.

Server backup

NOTE: You can only retain a single snapshot of a server at a time.

How to restore a server?

To restore a server from a snapshot, follow these steps:

  • Log in to the CenturyLink Control Portal.

  • Enter the name of your server in the search box at the top of the page, or select the server from the region and group list.

  • On the server detail page, click the snapshot title in the "Snapshot" section.

    Server restore

  • In the resulting dialog, click the "restore snapshot" button.

    Server restore

Your request will be added to the queue. The server will shortly be restored to the state it was in when the snapshot was created.

How to change the server type or resize the server?

The Bitnami Launchpad for CenturyLink Cloud only supports setting the server type during the initial server build. Should you wish to change the server type after this, you can only do so from the CenturyLink Control Portal.

Follow the steps below:

  • Log in to the CenturyLink Control Portal.

  • Enter the name of your server in the search box at the top of the page, or select the server from the region and group list.

  • On the server detail page, click the "Edit" button in the "CPU" and/or "MEMORY" graphs, depending on which you wish to modify.

    CenturyLink server modification

  • Select the new configuration for the server by dragging the control sliders.

  • Click "apply" to save the configuration.

    CenturyLink server modification

You'll now be redirected to a status page which shows you the current status of your request and the server will be modified to use the new configuration. Depending on the extent of modification needed, the server may automatically restart during this process.

How to configure a static IP address?

CenturyLink Cloud servers launched through the Bitnami Launchpad for CenturyLink Cloud already have a public, static IP address. Similarly, depending on the Blueprint used, CenturyLink Cloud servers launched using Bitnami Blueprints may also have a public, static IP address.

If your cloud server already has a public, static IP address, you can skip this step. If not, follow the steps below to add a public IP address to your CenturyLink Cloud server:

  • Log in to the CenturyLink Control Portal.

  • Enter the name of your server in the search box at the top of the page, or select the server from the region and group list.

  • On the server detail page, click the "add public ip" button.

    CenturyLink public IP address addition

  • In case you haven't already done so, you can also select the ports to be opened. For example, for public Web applications, you will usually want to open the HTTP and HTTPS ports (80, 8080 and 443). If you plan to log in and use the server console, you should open the SSH port (22).

  • Click the "add public ip address" button. This will add your request to the queue.

    CenturyLink public IP address addition

You'll now be redirected to a status page which shows you the current status of your request. Once the IP address is added, you will be able to see details of the new public IP address in the server detail page, as shown below.

CenturyLink public IP address addition

NOTE: Public IP addresses assigned to a CenturyLink Cloud server persist across reboots.

How to restart a server?

If you are using the Bitnami Launchpad for CenturyLink Cloud, follow these steps:

  • Browse to the Bitnami Launchpad for CenturyLink Cloud and sign in if required using your Bitnami account.

  • Select the "Virtual Machines" menu item.

  • Select your cloud server from the resulting list.

  • Click the "Reboot" button on the page.

    Server restart

This will add your request to the queue. The server will shortly be restarted.

If you are using the CenturyLink Control Portal, follow these steps:

  • Log in to the CenturyLink Control Portal.

  • Enter the name of your server in the search box at the top of the page, or select the server from the region and group list.

  • On the server detail page, click the "reboot" link in the command bar.

    Server restart

This will add your request to the queue. The server will shortly be restarted.

IMPORTANT: Public IP addresses assigned to the server persist across reboots. However, services are not automatically started after reboot, so you must access the machine using SSH and start services manually using the ctlscript.sh command

What is the Bitnami Vault?

The Bitnami Vault is a secure password storage area associated with your Bitnami account. It stores all your Launchpad passwords (needed to deploy or manage servers from the various Bitnami Launchpads).

To use it, log in to your Bitnami account once. Once logged in, you can gain access to one or more Launchpads simply by providing the corresponding Bitnami Vault password as needed.

How to configure your application to use a third-party SMTP service for outgoing email?

Bitnami applications can be configured to use a third-party SMTP service for outgoing email. Examples of such third-party SMTP services are SendGrid and Mandrill. Instructions for using both these are provided below.

SendGrid

SendGrid's SMTP service can be accessed using your SendGrid account credentials. These credentials can be obtained by logging in to the SendGrid website and visiting the "Account Details" page.

SendGrid configuration

To configure your application to send email through SendGrid's SMTP service, use the settings below. Replace USERNAME with your SendGrid account username and PASSWORD with your SendGrid account password.

  • SMTP host: smtp.sendgrid.net
  • SMTP port: 25 or 587 for unencrypted/TLS email, 465 for SSL-encrypted email
  • SMTP username: USERNAME
  • SMTP password: PASSWORD

Here's an example of configuring WordPress to use SendGrid:

WordPress with SendGrid

More information is available in the SendGrid documentation.

Mandrill

Mandrill's SMTP service requires an API key for access. To obtain this key, log in to the Mandrill website, navigate to the "SMTP & API" section and create an API key. Note the SMTP server name, username and API key, as these serve as your credentials for accessing the Mandrill SMTP server.

Mandrill configuration

To configure your application to send email through Mandrill's SMTP service, use the settings below. Replace USERNAME with your SMTP username and API-KEY with the generated API key.

  • SMTP host: smtp.mandrillapp.com
  • SMTP port: 25, 587 or 2525 for unencrypted/TLS email, 465 for SSL-encrypted email
  • SMTP username: USERNAME
  • SMTP password: API-KEY

Here's an example of configuring WordPress to use Mandrill:

WordPress with Mandrill

More information is available in the Mandrill documentation.

Similar steps can be followed for other third-party SMTP services as well. Consult your service provider's documentation to obtain details on authentication credentials and available ports.

Does Bitnami collect any data from deployed Bitnami stacks?

Yes. Bitnami cloud images and virtual machines include a small agent that starts on boot and collects a few pieces of information about the system. For users of Bitnami Virtual Machine Images, Cloud Templates, and Container Images we may also collect information from downloaded, pulled or deployed images or instances, such as the instance type, IP address and operating system version or the Bitnami account used to launch the image in order to improve our product offerings.

We encourage you to leave this tracking on, but if you would like to turn it off, you can comment out or delete the following line in the /etc/crontab file:

X * * * * bitnami cd /opt/bitnami/stats && ./agent.bin --run -D

(where X is a random number for each instance generated at the boot time)

Our complete privacy policy is available online. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us at hello@bitnami.com.

What does the SSH warning 'REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED' mean?

This warning is normal when trying to connect to the same IP address but a different machine - for instance, when you assign the same static IP address to another server. You can fix the problem by removing the IP address that you are trying to connect to from your ~/.ssh/known_hosts file.

If you use PuTTY, the SSH key mismatch warning looks like the image below:

SSH warning

In this case, click "Yes" if you know the reason for the key mismatch (IP address reassigned to another server, machine replaced, and so on).

How to troubleshoot server performance problems?

There are several possible reasons why your server might be under-performing. Use the list below to identify what could be affecting it.

  • Check the server type and ensure that it has the necessary CPU and RAM resources to meet your application requirements and user load.

  • Check if your application is using a cache. Consider enabling a cache if one is not already present. For applications like WordPress, caching plugins like W3 Total Cache can produce a significant improvement in performance.

  • Check if there are any cron jobs running on the server and consuming resources.

  • Review the server dashboard or monitoring page and check the list of processes consuming CPU and memory. Alternatively, log in to the machine console via SSH and execute the following command to see a list of running processes:

     $ ps -e -orss=,args= | sort -b -k1,1n | pr -TW$COLUMNS
     $ ps -e -o pcpu,nice,state,cputime,args --sort -pcpu | head -10
    
  • In case of problems with the disk size, check the free disk space and which directories have a large number of files:

     $ df -ih
     $ df -h
     $ cd /opt/bitnami
     $ sudo find . -type f | cut -d "/" -f 2 | sort | uniq -c | sort -n
     $ du -h -d 1
    

How to improve server performance?

Consider the following tips to improve the performance of your server.

centurylink

Bitnami Documentation