Deploy your Bitnami MariaDB Stack on 1&1 Cloud Platform now! Launch Now

Bitnami MariaDB for 1&1 Cloud Platform

Description

MariaDB is an open source, community-developed SQL database server that is widely in use around the world due to its enterprise features, flexibility, and collaboration with leading tech firms.

First steps with the Bitnami MariaDB Stack

Welcome to your new Bitnami application running on 1&1! Here are a few questions (and answers!) you might need when first starting with your application.

What credentials do I need?

You need two sets of credentials:

  • The application password. This will allow you to log in to your new Bitnami application.

  • The server credentials, consisting of an SSH username and password. These credentials allow you to log in to your 1&1 Cloud Platform server using an SSH client and execute commands on the server using the command line.

What is the administrator password?

What SSH username should I use for secure shell access to my application?

SSH username: root

How do I get my SSH key or password?

What are the default ports?

A port is an endpoint of communication in an operating system that identifies a specific process or a type of service. Bitnami stacks include several services or servers that require a port.

Remember that if you need to open some ports you can follow the instructions given in the FAQ to learn how to open the server ports for remote access.

Port 22 is the default port for SSH connections.

The MariaDB access port is 3306. This port is closed by default, you must open it to enable remote access.

How to start or stop the services?

Each Bitnami stack includes a control script that lets you easily stop, start and restart services. The script is located at /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh. Call it without any service name arguments to start all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start

Or use it to restart a single service, such as Apache only, by passing the service name as argument:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart apache

Use this script to stop all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop

Restart the services by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart

Obtain a list of available services and operations by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh

How to upload files to the server with SFTP?

NOTE: Bitnami applications can be found in /opt/bitnami/apps.
  • If you are using the Bitnami Launchpad for 1&1 Cloud Platform, obtain your SSH credentials by following these steps:

    • Browse to the Bitnami Launchpad for 1&1 and sign in if required using your Bitnami account.
    • Select the "Virtual Machines" menu item.
    • Select your cloud server from the resulting list.
    • Note the server IP address and SSH credentials on the resulting page.

      SSH credentials

  • If you are using the 1&1 Control Panel, obtain your SSH credentials by following these steps:

    • Log in to the 1&1 Control Panel.
    • Navigate to the "Infrastructure -> Servers" section.
    • Look through the list of servers until you find the server you wish to modify. Click the server name.
    • In the "Features -> Server access" section, note the SSH username and click the "Show Password" link to obtain the corresponding SSH password.

      SSH credentials

Although you can use any SFTP/SCP client to transfer files to your server, this guide documents FileZilla (Windows, Linux and Mac OS X), WinSCP (Windows) and Cyberduck (Mac OS X).

Using a Password

Once you have your server's SSH credentials, choose your preferred application and follow the steps below to connect to the server using SFTP.

FileZilla

Follow these steps:

  • Download and install FileZilla.
  • Launch FileZilla and use the "File -> Site Manager -> New Site" command to bring up the FileZilla Site Manager, where you can set up a connection to your server.
  • Enter your server host name.
  • Select "SFTP" as the protocol and "Ask for password" as the logon type. Specify root as the user name and enter the server password.

    FileZilla configuration

  • Use the "Connect" button to connect to the server and begin an SFTP session. You might need to accept the server key, by clicking "Yes" or "OK" to proceed.

You should now be logged into the /root directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

If you have problems accessing your server, get extra information by use the "Edit -> Settings -> Debug" menu to activate FileZilla's debug log.

FileZilla debug log

WinSCP

Follow these steps:

  • Download and install WinSCP.
  • Launch WinSCP and in the "Session" panel, select "SFTP" as the file protocol.
  • Enter your server host name and specify root as the user name.

    WinSCP configuration

  • From the "Session" panel, use the "Login" button to connect to the server and begin an SCP session. Enter the password when prompted.

    WinSCP configuration

You should now be logged into the /root directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

Cyberduck

Follow these steps:

  • Select the "Open Connection" command and specify "SFTP" as the connection protocol.

    Cyberduck configuration

  • In the connection details panel, enter the server IP address, the username root and the SSH password.

    Cyberduck configuration

  • Use the "Connect" button to connect to the server and begin an SFTP session.

You should now be logged into the /root directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

What is the default configuration?

The grant tables define the initial MariaDB user accounts and their access privileges. The default configuration consists of:

  • A privileged account with a username of root. The root user has remote access to the database.
  • An anonymous user without remote access to the database server. This user can only connect from the local machine and it is only intended for testing.
  • A test database only intended for testing.

Check our recommendations for a production server.

MariaDB version

In order to see which MariaDB version are your machine running you can execute the following command:

$ mysqld --version

MariaDB configuration file

The MariaDB configuration file is located at /opt/bitnami/mariadb/my.cnf.

The MariaDB official documentation has more details about how to configure the MariaDB database.

MariaDB socket

On Unix, MariaDB clients can connect to the server in the local machine using an Unix socket file at /opt/bitnami/mariadb/tmp/mysql.sock.

MariaDB port

The default port for MariaDB is 3306.

MariaDB Process Identification Number

The MariaDB .pid file allows other programs to find out the PID (Process Identification Number) of a running script. Find it at /opt/bitnami/mariadb/data/mysqld.pid.

MariaDB log file

The log-error file contains information indicating when MariaDB was started and stopped and also any critical errors that occur while the server is running. If MariaDB notices a table that needs to be automatically checked or repaired, it writes a message to the error log. Find it at /opt/bitnami/mariadb/data/mysqld.log.

How to find the database credentials?

How to connect to the MariaDB database?

You can connect to the MariaDB database from the same computer where it is installed with the mysql client tool.

$ mysql -u root -p

You will be prompted to enter the root user password. This is the same as the application password.

How to connect to MariaDB from a different machine?

For security reasons, the MariaDB port in this solution cannot be accessed over a public IP address. To connect to MariaDB from a different machine, you must open port 3306 for remote access. Refer to the FAQ for more information on this.

IMPORTANT: By default, the database port for the nodes in this solution cannot be accessed over a public IP address. As a result, you will only be able to connect to your database nodes from machines that are running in the same network. For security reasons, we do not recommend making the database port accessible over a public IP address. If you must make it accessible over a public IP address, we recommend restricting access to a trusted list of source IP addresses using firewall rules. Refer to the FAQ for information on opening ports in the server firewall.

Once you have an active SSH tunnel or you opened the port for remote access, you can then connect to MariaDB using a command like the one below.

Remember to replace SOURCE-PORT with the source port number specified in the SSH tunnel configuration or 3306 if you opened the port for remote access.

$ mysql -h 127.0.0.1 -P SOURCE-PORT -u root -p

You will be prompted to enter the root user password. This is the same as the application password.

How to create a database for a custom application?

These are the basic steps to create a new database and user for your applications:

  • Create a new database:

     MariaDB> create database DATABASE_NAME;
     Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
    
  • Create a new user (only with local access) and grant privileges to this user on the new database:

     MariaDB> grant all privileges on DATABASE_NAME.* TO 'USER_NAME'@'localhost' identified by 'PASSWORD';
     Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
    
  • Create a new user (with remote access) and grant privileges to this user on the new database:

     MariaDB> grant all privileges on DATABASE_NAME.* TO 'USER_NAME'@'%' identified by 'PASSWORD';
     Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
    
  • After modifying the MariaDB grant tables, execute the following command in order to apply the changes:

     MariaDB> flush privileges;
     Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
    

Some applications require specific privileges in the database. Check the MariaDB official documentation for getting, installing, and upgrading MariaDB.

How to reset the MariaDB root password?

Please note that depending on the version you have installed, you may find the MariaDB files at /opt/bitnami/mysql

If you don't remember your MariaDB root password, you can follow the steps below to reset it to a new value:

  • Create a file in /home/bitnami/mysql-init with the content shown below (replace NEW_PASSWORD with the password you wish to use):

     UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('NEW_PASSWORD') WHERE User='root';
     FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    
  • Stop the MariaDB server:

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop mariadb
    
  • Start MariaDB with the following command:

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/mariadb/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/opt/bitnami/mariadb/my.cnf --pid-file=/opt/bitnami/mariadb/data/mysqld.pid --init-file=/home/bitnami/mysql-init 2> /dev/null &
    
  • Restart the MariaDB server:

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart mariadb
    
  • Remove the init script

     $ rm /home/bitnami/mysql-init
    

How to change the MariaDB root password?

You can modify the MariaDB password using the following command at the shell prompt:

$ /opt/bitnami/mariadb/bin/mysqladmin -p -u root password NEW_PASSWORD

How to create a database backup?

To back up all the databases, create a dump file using the mysqldump tool.

$ mysqldump -A -u root -p > backup.sql

This operation could take some time depending on the database sizes.

NOTE: The steps previously described will only back up the data contained inside your databases. There may be other files that you should take into account when performing a full backup, such as files that may have been uploaded to your application. Refer to your application's documentation for more details.

How to restore a database backup?

Once you have the backup file, you can restore it with a command like the one below:

$ mysql -u root -p < backup.sql

How to secure your server?

Once you have created a new database and user for your application, connect to your MariaDB server and follow these recommendations:

  • Remove anonymous users:

     MariaDB> DELETE FROM mysql.user WHERE User='';
    
  • Remove the test database and access to it:

     MariaDB> DROP DATABASE test;
     MariaDB> DELETE FROM mysql.db WHERE Db='test' OR Db='test\\_%';
    
  • Disallow root login remotely:

     MariaDB> DELETE FROM mysql.user WHERE User='root' AND Host NOT IN ('localhost', '127.0.0.1', '::1');
    

    Don't forget to reload the privileges tables to apply the changes:

     MariaDB> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    
  • Change your root user password.

  • It is strongly recommended that you do not have empty passwords for any user accounts when using the server for any production work.

  • If you don't need remote access, uncomment the line

     #bind-address=127.0.0.1
    

    in the MariaDB configuration file to only listen for connections on the local machine. Restart the server once done.

How to debug errors in your database?

Please note that depending on the version you have installed, you may find the MariaDB files at /opt/bitnami/mysql

The main log file is created at /opt/bitnami/mariadb/data/mysqld.log on the MySQL database server host.

How to recover a MariaDB database with errors?

Before trying to recover a MariaDB database, you should check the exact error in the MariaDB log file at /opt/bitnami/mariadb/data/mysqld.log. Check the latest entries in the MariaDB log file with the following command:

$ sudo tail -n 100 /opt/bitnami/mariadb/data/mysqld.log

In this case, assume the following error in the log file:

110108 10:37:45 [ERROR] Fatal error: Can't open and lock privilege tables: Table 'user' is marked as crashed

Here are some steps to resolve this error:

  • The MariaDB database is configured to use InnoDB engine by default. You can add the innodb_force_recovery=1 option in the main MariaDB configuration file at /opt/bitnami/mariadb/my.cnf to try and fix the database:

     [mysqld]
     innodb_force_recovery = 1
    
  • Start the MariaDB database with the following command:

     $ mysqld --skip-grant-tables --user=mysql --pid-file=/opt/bitnami/mariadb/data/mysqld.pid
     --skip-external-locking --port=3306 --sock=/opt/bitnami/mariadb/tmp/mysql.sock
    
  • Open a new console and try to log in the database:

     $ mysql -u root -p
    
  • In this case, the error was related to the mysql.user table. Run these commands:

     MariaDB> use mysql;
     MariaDB> repair table user;
     MariaDB> check table user;
     MariaDB> exit;
    

If the table is recovered, you should see "OK" in the mysql.user status table. Do not forget to remove the innodb_force_recovery option from the my.cnf file and restart the MariaDB server again.

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart mariadb

If you find a different error or cannot fix an issue, we can try to help at http://community.bitnami.com.

How to change the data directory?

The data directory for MariaDB is set to /opt/bitnami/mariadb/data by default. You can modify the location of this folder modifying the /opt/bitnami/mariadb/my.cnf file, as shown below:

...
datadir=/opt/bitnami/mariadb/data
...

Also modify the /opt/bitnami/mariadb/scripts/ctl.sh file to reflect the new directory location:

--datadir=/opt/bitnami/mariadb/data

Finally, move the data/ directory to the new location and restart the database.

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