Frequently Asked Questions for 1&1 Cloud Platform

How to connect to the server through SSH?

The first step is to ensure that you have the SSH credentials for your server. Follow these steps:

  • Browse to the Bitnami Launchpad for 1&1 and sign in if required using your Bitnami account.
  • Select the "Virtual Machines" menu item.
  • Select your cloud server from the resulting list.
  • Note the server IP address and SSH password on the resulting page.

    SSH credentials

Then, depending on your platform, follow the instructions below:

Windows

The easiest way to log in to your server is with PuTTY, a free SSH client for Windows and UNIX platforms.

  • Download the PuTTY ZIP archive from its website.
  • Extract the contents to a folder on your desktop.
  • Double-click the putty.exe file to bring up the PuTTY configuration window.
  • Enter the IP address of your server into the "Host Name (or IP address)" field, as well as into the "Saved Sessions" field.
  • Click "Save" to save the new session so you can reuse it later. PuTTY configuration
  • In the "Connection -> Data" section, enter the username root into the "Auto-login username" field. PuTTY configuration
  • Go back to the "Session" section and save your changes by clicking the "Save" button.
  • Click the "Open" button to open an SSH session to the server.
  • PuTTY will first ask you to confirm the server's host key and add it to the cache. Go ahead and click "Yes" to this request (learn more). PuTTY connection
  • Enter the SSH password when prompted.

You should now be logged in to your server.

Linux and Mac OS X

Linux and Mac OS X come bundled with SSH clients by default.

  • Open a new terminal window on your local system (for example, using "Finder -> Applications -> Utilities -> Terminal" in Mac OS X or the Dash in Ubuntu).

  • Connect to the server using the following command:

      $ ssh root@100.101.102.103
    

    Remember to replace 100.101.102.103 with the public IP address or hostname of your server.

  • Your SSH client might ask you to confirm the server's host key and add it to the cache before connecting. Accept this request by typing or selecting "Yes" (learn more).
  • Enter your SSH password when prompted.

You should now be logged in to your server.

How to access a server using an SSH tunnel?

Bitnami strongly discourages you from opening server ports apart from those defined by default. In case you need to access a server on a specific port remotely, Bitnami recommends creating an SSH tunnel instead of opening the port in the server firewall.

Depending on your operating system, follow these instructions to create an SSH tunnel and ensure secure access to the application.

IMPORTANT: Before following the steps below, ensure that your application server is running.

Windows

To access the server on a specific port using an SSH tunnel, follow the steps below.

  • Download PuTTY and make sure you can log in to the server console with it following the instructions in the FAQ. Once you have confirmed you are able to log in successfully, log back out.

  • Reconnect to the server using PuTTY, this time adapting the steps to include an additional SSH tunnel. When configuring the new SSH session in PuTTY, additionally navigate to the "Connection -> SSH -> Tunnels" section and create a secure tunnel by forwarding a port (the "destination port") on the remote server to a port (the "source port") on the local host (127.0.0.1 or localhost).

  • Click the "Add" button to add the secure tunnel configuration to the session. An example of configuring an SSH tunnel between remote port 80 and local port 8888 is displayed below.

    PuTTY safe tunneling

  • Go back to the "Session" section and save your changes by clicking the "Save" button.

  • Click the "Open" button to open an SSH session to the server. The SSH session will now include a secure SSH tunnel between the two specified ports.

While the tunnel is active, you should be able to access the application through the secure SSH tunnel you created, by browsing to http://127.0.0.1:PORT/ or http://localhost:PORT/. Remember to replace PORT with the source port number specified.

Linux and Mac OS X

To access the server on a specific port using an SSH tunnel, follow the steps below.

  • Open a new terminal window on your local system (for example, using "Finder -> Applications -> Utilities -> Terminal" in Mac OS X or the Dash in Ubuntu).

  • Make sure you can log in to the server console following the instructions in the FAQ. Once you have confirmed you are able to log in successfully, log back out.

  • Run the following command to configure the SSH tunnel. Remember that LOCAL-PORT, REMOTE-PORT, USERNAME and SERVER-IP are placeholders for local port number, remote port number, server SSH username and remote server IP address, respectively and should be replaced with correct values. Enter your SSH password when prompted.

     $ ssh -N -L LOCAL-PORT:127.0.0.1:REMOTE-PORT USERNAME@SERVER-IP
    

    If you are using a private key to connect to the server, use the following command instead, remembering to replace KEYFILE with the path to your private key:

     $ ssh -N -L LOCAL-PORT:127.0.0.1:REMOTE-PORT -i KEYFILE USERNAME@SERVER-IP
    
    NOTE: If successful, the above commands will create an SSH tunnel but will not display any output on the server console.

While the tunnel is active, you should be able to access the server through the secure SSH tunnel you created, by browsing to http://127.0.0.1:LOCAL-PORT. Remember to replace LOCAL-PORT with the local port number specified.

What is the directory structure?

The installation process will create several sub-directories under the /opt/bitnami directory:

  • Servers and related tools: apache2/, mysql/, postgresql/, apache-tomcat/, etc.
  • Languages: php/, python/, ruby/, tcl/, etc.
  • Application files: apps/phpMyAdmin/, apps/drupal/, apps/joomla/, apps/redmine/, etc.
  • Common libraries: common/
  • Licenses of the components included in the stack: licenses/

Application files are stored in the /opt/bitnami/apps/APPNAME/htdocs directory. The configuration file for the Apache Web server is stored in the /opt/bitnami/apps/APPNAME/conf/ directory.

What is a Bitnami image?

A Bitnami image includes everything you need to run your Bitnami-packaged application of choice. The installation and configuration of all of the software included in the stack is completely automated, making it easy for everyone, including those who are not very technical, to get them up and running.

All Bitnami images are completely self-contained and run independently of the rest of the software or libraries installed on your system. This means that you don't have to worry about installing any other software on your system to make the new application work. They also won't interfere with any software already installed on the system, so everything will continue to work normally.

How to start or stop the servers?

Each Bitnami stack includes a control script that lets you easily stop, start and restart servers. The script is located at /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh. Call it without any service name arguments to start all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start

Or use it to restart a single service, by passing the service name as argument. For example, if the stack uses the Apache Web server, use the command below to restart it:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart apache

Or, if the stack uses the Nginx server, use the command below to restart it:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart nginx

Use this script to stop all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop

Restart the services by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart

Obtain a list of available services and operations by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh  

How to find application credentials?

Using the Bitnami Launchpad

Your default credentials become available once you create a cloud server. To find them, follow these steps:

  • Browse to the Bitnami Launchpad for 1&1 and sign in if required using your Bitnami account.
  • Select the "Virtual Machines" menu item.
  • Select your cloud server from the resulting list.
  • The "Application Info" section in the left panel contains the credentials for your instance. The password is hidden by default but will be displayed in plain text when the "Show" button, adjacent to the password input, is clicked.

    Server credentials

Using the 1&1 Control Panel

  • You can find the application username in the detail page for your server, as shown below.

    Server credentials

    You can also obtain the application username from the application page in our documentation.

    If you started a server (for example, MongoDB or similar) that isn't a Web application server, you can use the default administrator user to log in to the database (for example, root). You can find more information for each specific server in our documentation.

  • When creating and deploying a new server, you will have the opportunity to specify a password. This password will be used as the application password. In case you don't specify a password, a random password will be auto-generated for you.

    During the server creation process, a confirmation screen will appear and display the server password.

    Server credentials

    IMPORTANT: The server password will not be displayed again, so note it carefully for future reference. Should you later forget it and wish to reset it, you must raise a support request with 1&1.

How to block a suspicious IP address?

If you have detected an IP address that is collapsing your server or just making suspicious requests, block it using iptables. To do this, run the following command:

$ sudo su
$ iptables -A INPUT -s 1.2.3.4 -j DROP

Remember to replace 1.2.3.4 with the IP address you want to block.

IMPORTANT: Use with caution. If you don't specify an IP address, you will block yourself.

This will block all requests from that IP address. To have your iptables rules active even after rebooting the server, follow these steps:

  • Execute these commands:

     $ sudo su
     $ iptables-save > /opt/bitnami/iptables-rules
     $ crontab -e
    
  • Edit the above file with your favourite editor and include this line at the end of the file:

     @reboot /sbin/iptables-restore < /opt/bitnami/iptables-rules
    
  • Save the file and exit.

Now, on every boot, the system will load and apply the iptables rules.

To delete a rule, run the following command:

$ sudo su
$ iptables -D INPUT -s 1.2.3.4 -j DROP

This will delete the rule. Remember to replace 1.2.3.4 with a valid IP address.

Rerun the iptables-save command shown previously to make the new rules active even after rebooting the server.

How to open the server ports for remote access?

By default, 1&1 cloud servers have some or all of their ports closed to secure them against external attacks. In some cases, ports needed for specific applications to operate properly are also left open by default.

If you need to access your server remotely using a different port, you must first open the necessary port(s) using the 1&1 Control Panel.

NOTE: For servers launched through the Bitnami Launchpad for 1&1, select the cloud server you wish to modify in the Bitnami Launchpad and click the "Manage in the 1&1 Console" button to access the 1&1 Control Panel.

Follow these steps:

  • Log in to the 1&1 Control Panel.
  • Navigate to the "Network -> Firewall Policies" section.
  • Click the "Create" button to create a new firewall policy.

    1&1 firewall configuration

  • In the resulting form, enter a name for the firewall policy.
  • Enter a new firewall rule specifying the protocol, port range and list of IP addresses allowed to connect to that port. You can also click the "Add Predefined Values" button and select from a list of commonly-used ports to have the values pre-filled for you. Repeat this step until all the necessary ports are recorded.

    1&1 firewall configuration

  • Click "Create" to save and create the new policy.
  • Once the new firewall policy has been created, select it in the list of policies.
  • In the firewall policy details section, click the "Assign" button.

    1&1 firewall configuration

  • In the resulting dialog, select the server(s) to which you wish to apply the new firewall policy by name.

    1&1 firewall configuration

  • Click "Save Changes" to apply the new firewall policy to the selected server(s).

Your new firewall policy comes into effect immediately without any need to restart the server.

How to close the server ports and deny remote access?

NOTE: For servers launched through the Bitnami Launchpad for 1&1, select the cloud server you wish to modify in the Bitnami Launchpad and click the "Manage in the 1&1 Console" button to access the 1&1 Control Panel.

To close a server port and deny remote access on that port, follow these steps:

  • Log in to the 1&1 Control Panel.
  • Navigate to the "Infrastructure -> Servers" section.
  • Look through the list of servers until you find the server you wish to modify. Click the server name.
  • On the resulting server detail page, find the "Firewall Policies" section and note the name of the firewall policy in use.

    1&1 firewall configuration

  • Navigate to the "Network -> Firewall Policies" section.
  • Look through the list of policies until you find the firewall policy for the server. Select the policy by clicking it.
  • In the "Configuration" section, review the list of rules for open ports. Close a port by clicking the minus icon next to it to remove the corresponding firewall rule.

    1&1 firewall configuration

Your new firewall policy comes into effect immediately without any need to restart the server.

How to upload files to the server with SFTP?

NOTE: Bitnami applications can be found in /opt/bitnami/apps.

First, obtain your SSH credentials by following these steps:

  • Browse to the Bitnami Launchpad for 1&1 and sign in if required using your Bitnami account.
  • Select the "Virtual Machines" menu item.
  • Select your cloud server from the resulting list.
  • Note the server IP address and SSH credentials on the resulting page.

    SSH credentials

Although you can use any SFTP/SCP client to transfer files to your server, this guide documents FileZilla (Windows, Linux and Mac OS X), WinSCP (Windows) and Cyberduck (Mac OS X).

Using a Password

Once you have your server's SSH credentials, choose your preferred application and follow the steps below to connect to the server using SFTP.

FileZilla

Follow these steps:

  • Download and install FileZilla.
  • Launch FileZilla and use the "File -> Site Manager -> New Site" command to bring up the FileZilla Site Manager, where you can set up a connection to your server.
  • Enter your server host name.
  • Select "SFTP" as the protocol and "Ask for password" as the logon type. Specify root as the user name and enter the server password. FileZilla configuration
  • Use the "Connect" button to connect to the server and begin an SFTP session. You might need to accept the server key, by clicking "Yes" or "OK" to proceed.

You should now be logged into the /root directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

If you have problems accessing your server, get extra information by use the "Edit -> Settings -> Debug" menu to activate FileZilla's debug log.

FileZilla debug log

WinSCP

Follow these steps:

  • Download and install WinSCP.
  • Launch WinSCP and in the "Session" panel, select "SFTP" as the file protocol.
  • Enter your server host name and specify root as the user name. WinSCP configuration
  • From the "Session" panel, use the "Login" button to connect to the server and begin an SCP session. Enter the password when prompted. WinSCP configuration

You should now be logged into the /root directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

Cyberduck

Follow these steps:

  • Select the "Open Connection" command and specify "SFTP" as the connection protocol. Cyberduck configuration

  • In the connection details panel, enter the server IP address, the username root and the SSH password. Cyberduck configuration

  • Use the "Connect" button to connect to the server and begin an SFTP session.

You should now be logged into the /root directory on the server. You can now transfer files by dragging and dropping them from the local server window to the remote server window.

How to configure a static IP address?

By default, a static IP address will be assigned to your cloud server.

How to configure a custom domain?

To use a custom domain with a server started through the Bitnami Launchpad, follow these steps:

Configure a static IP address for your cloud server

Follow these instructions.

Configure the domain in your DNS provider

The next step is to update your domain's DNS settings, specifically by adding an A record that points to the static IP address of your cloud server.

This change can only be accomplished through your domain name provider; it cannot be made through the Bitnami Launchpad. You will therefore need to log in to your domain name provider's management console and make the necessary changes. Step-by-step instructions for some popular providers are listed below:

Remember that once you make the necessary changes, it can take up to 48 hours for the change to propagate across other DNS servers. You can verify the new DNS record by using the Global DNS Propagation Checker and entering your domain name into the search field.

At the end of this step, entering your custom domain name into the browser address bar should take you to your Bitnami application on the cloud server, as shown below:

Custom domain in browser

Update application configuration

For some applications, such as Prestashop, it is also necessary to perform additional configuration so that the application "knows" its domain and the domain name is correctly reflected in application URLs. This is easily accomplished with the command-line Bitnami Configuration tool, bnconfig, which will update the application configuration and database to use the new domain wherever needed.

To use this tool, follow these steps:

  • Log in to your server console (instructions).
  • Change to your application directory, usually located under /opt/bitnami/apps/APP-NAME.
  • Execute the following command:

     $ sudo ./bnconfig --machine_hostname DOMAIN-NAME
    

For example, to configure Prestashop to use the domain my-shop.com, use the commands below:

$ cd /opt/bitnami/apps/prestashop
$ sudo ./bnconfig --machine_hostname my-shop.com

Or, to configure your WordPress Multisite blog to use the primary domain my-blog.com, use the commands below:

$ cd /opt/bitnami/apps/wordpress
$ sudo ./bnconfig --machine_hostname my-blog.com

How to backup a server?

IMPORTANT: We strongly recommend creating a backup of your server prior to any major changes or upgrades.

To create a backup, you can use either snapshots or images.

  • Snapshots are free of charge, but are auto-deleted after 72 hours. Only one snapshot of a given server can exist at any time.

  • Images are chargeable per image, but can be retained indefinitely. Multiple images of a given server can exist at any time.

Using Snapshots

This feature creates a new snapshot of the disk, which can later be used to restore the server to an earlier state. Follow the steps below:

  • Log in to the 1&1 Control Panel.
  • Navigate to the "Infrastructure -> Servers" section.
  • Select the server you wish to modify from the list of servers.

    1&1 server backup

  • Click the "Actions -> Create Snapshot" menu item and confirm snapshot creation when prompted.

    1&1 server backup

Your new snapshot will be created and will appear in the list of snapshots.

Using Images

This feature creates an image of the disk, which can later be used to restore the server to an earlier state. Follow the steps below:

  • Log in to the 1&1 Control Panel.
  • Navigate to the "Infrastructure -> Images" section.
  • Click the "Create Image" button.

    1&1 server backup

  • Enter a name for the image and select the server you wish to create the image of.

    1&1 server backup

  • Click the "Create" button to create the image.

Your new image will be created and will appear in the list of images.

How to restore a server?

You can restore a server from a snapshot or an image.

Using Snapshots

To restore a server from a snapshot, follow these steps:

  • Log in to the 1&1 Control Panel.
  • Navigate to the "Infrastructure -> Servers" section.
  • Select the server you wish to modify from the list of servers.

    1&1 server restoration

  • Click the "Actions -> Restore Snapshot" menu item and confirm snapshot restoration when prompted.

    1&1 server restoration

Your server will be restored to the state it was in when the snapshot was created.

Using Images

To restore a server from an image, you must create a new server using the image. Follow these steps:

  • Log in to the 1&1 Control Panel.
  • Navigate to the "Infrastructure -> Servers" section.
  • Click the "Create" button.

    1&1 server restoration

  • On the resulting page, enter a name for your server and select a server configuration.

  • On the same page, in the "Images" section, select the "My Images" tab and choose the image you wish to restore.

    1&1 server restoration

  • Click "Create" to deploy the new server.

A new server will be created from the selected image.

How to change the server type?

The Bitnami Launchpad for 1&1 only supports setting the server type during the initial server build. Should you wish to change the server type after this, you can only do so from the 1&1 Control Panel.

Follow the steps below:

  • Browse to the Bitnami Launchpad for 1&1 and sign in if required using your Bitnami account.
  • Select the "Virtual Machines" menu item.
  • Select your cloud server from the resulting list. Note the name of the server.
  • On the server detail page, click the "Manage in the 1&1 Console" button.

    1&1 server type configuration

  • You will be redirected to the 1&1 Control Panel. Log in if needed.
  • Navigate to the "Infrastructure -> Servers" section.
  • Select the server you wish to modify from the list of servers.

    1&1 server type configuration

  • In the server detail section, find the "Configuration" field and click it. This will produce a dialog listing the currently selected server type and other available types.

    1&1 server type configuration

  • Choose the new server type and click "Confirm Changes", then "Yes" when prompted for reconfirmation.

    1&1 server type configuration

The server should restart using the new type.

1&1 server type configuration

What is the Bitnami Vault?

The Bitnami Vault is a secure password storage area associated with your Bitnami account. It stores all your Launchpad passwords (needed to deploy or manage servers from the various Bitnami Launchpads).

To use it, log in to your Bitnami account once. Once logged in, you can gain access to one or more Launchpads simply by providing the corresponding Bitnami Vault password as needed.

How to configure your application to use a third-party SMTP service for outgoing email?

Bitnami applications can be configured to use a third-party SMTP service for outgoing email. Examples of such third-party SMTP services are SendGrid and Mandrill. Instructions for using both these are provided below.

SendGrid

SendGrid's SMTP service can be accessed using your SendGrid account credentials. These credentials can be obtained by logging in to the SendGrid website and visiting the "Account Details" page.

SendGrid configuration

To configure your application to send email through SendGrid's SMTP service, use the settings below. Replace USERNAME with your SendGrid account username and PASSWORD with your SendGrid account password.

  • SMTP host: smtp.sendgrid.net
  • SMTP port: 25 or 587 for unencrypted/TLS email, 465 for SSL-encrypted email
  • SMTP username: USERNAME
  • SMTP password: PASSWORD

Here's an example of configuring WordPress to use SendGrid:

WordPress with SendGrid

More information is available in the SendGrid documentation.

Mandrill

Mandrill's SMTP service requires an API key for access. To obtain this key, log in to the Mandrill website, navigate to the "SMTP & API" section and create an API key. Note the SMTP server name, username and API key, as these serve as your credentials for accessing the Mandrill SMTP server.

Mandrill configuration

To configure your application to send email through Mandrill's SMTP service, use the settings below. Replace USERNAME with your SMTP username and API-KEY with the generated API key.

  • SMTP host: smtp.mandrillapp.com
  • SMTP port: 25, 587 or 2525 for unencrypted/TLS email, 465 for SSL-encrypted email
  • SMTP username: USERNAME
  • SMTP password: API-KEY

Here's an example of configuring WordPress to use Mandrill:

WordPress with Mandrill

More information is available in the Mandrill documentation.

Similar steps can be followed for other third-party SMTP services as well. Consult your service provider's documentation to obtain details on authentication credentials and available ports.

Does Bitnami collect any data from deployed Bitnami stacks?

Yes. Bitnami cloud images and virtual machines include a small agent that starts on boot and collects a few pieces of information about the system. For users of Bitnami Virtual Machine Images, Cloud Templates, and Container Images we may also collect information from downloaded, pulled or deployed images or instances, such as the instance type, IP address and operating system version or the Bitnami account used to launch the image in order to improve our product offerings.

We encourage you to leave this tracking on, but if you would like to turn it off, you can comment out or delete the following line in the /etc/crontab file:

X * * * * bitnami cd /opt/bitnami/stats && ./agent.bin --run -D

(where X is a random number for each instance generated at the boot time)

Our complete privacy policy is available online. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us at hello@bitnami.com.

What does the SSH warning 'REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED' mean?

This warning is normal when trying to connect to the same IP address but a different machine - for instance, when you assign the same static IP address to another server. You can fix the problem by removing the IP address that you are trying to connect to from your ~/.ssh/known_hosts file.

If you use PuTTY, the SSH key mismatch warning looks like the image below:

SSH warning

In this case, click "Yes" if you know the reason for the key mismatch (IP address reassigned to another server, machine replaced, and so on).