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Bitnami SonarQube for 1&1 Cloud Platform

Description

SonarQube is an open source tool for continuous code quality which performs automatic reviews of code to detect bugs, code smells and vulnerabilities issues for 20+ programming languages.

First steps with the Bitnami SonarQube Stack

Welcome to your new Bitnami application running on 1&1 Cloud Platform! Here are a few questions (and answers!) you might need when first starting with your application.

What credentials do I need?

You need two sets of credentials:

  • The application credentials that allow you to log in to your new Bitnami application. These credentials consist of a username and password.
  • The server credentials that allow you to log in to your 1&1 Cloud Platform server using an SSH client and execute commands on the server using the command line. These credentials consist of an SSH username and key.

What is the administrator username set for me to log in to the application for the first time?

Username: admin

What SSH username should I use for secure shell access to my application?

SSH username: root

What are the default ports?

A port is an endpoint of communication in an operating system that identifies a specific process or a type of service. Bitnami stacks include several services or servers that require a port.

IMPORTANT: Making this application's network ports public is a significant security risk. You are strongly advised to only allow access to those ports from trusted networks. If, for development purposes, you need to access from outside of a trusted network, please do not allow access to those ports via a public IP address. Instead, use a secure channel such as a VPN or an SSH tunnel. Follow these instructions to remotely connect safely and reliably.

Port 22 is the default port for SSH connections.

Bitnami opens some ports for the main servers. These are the ports opened by default: 80, 443.

What is the default configuration?

The SonarQube installation folder is located in /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/, which has the following contents:

Directory Content
conf/ SonarQube's Apache configuration files.
sonarqube/ SonarQube's files.
sonarqube/bin/ SonarQube's binaries.
sonarqube/conf/ SonarQube's configuration files.
sonarqube/data/ SonarQube's data.
sonarqube/…  
scripts/ Scripts to manage SonarQube's service.

Analyze your first project with SonarQube Scanner

To get started with the Bitnami SonarQube Stack and SonarQube Scanner, you can follow this two-minute quickstart guide to analyze a sample project:

Linux and Mac OS X

  • Download the SonarQube Scanner zip file. You can find it for all platforms on this link.
  • Unzip it in /opt:

     $ sudo unzip -d /opt sonar-scanner-cli-*.zip
    
  • Download some sample projects from this link.
  • Unzip them in $HOME/sonar-scanning-examples:

     $ unzip -d $HOME master.zip
    
  • Analyze a project as shown below. Replace the USERNAME and PASSWORD placeholders with the correct user name and password.

     $ cd $HOME/sonar-scanning-examples/sonarqube-scanner
     $ /opt/sonar-scanner-*/bin/sonar-scanner -Dsonar.login=USERNAME -Dsonar.password=PASSWORD
    
  • Browse to http://SERVER-IP to find out the results. (SERVER-IP is a placeholder. Please, replace it with the actual domain of your SonarQube server).

Windows

  • Download the SonarQube Scanner zip file. You can find it for all platforms on this link.
  • Unzip it in C:\sonar-scanner.
  • Download some sample projects from this link.
  • Unzip them in %HOMEPATH%\sonar-scanning-examples.
  • Analyze a project as shown below. Replace the USERNAME and PASSWORD placeholders with the correct user name and password.

     $ cd %HOMEPATH%\sonar-scanning-examples\sonarqube-scanner
     $ C:\sonar-scanner\bin\sonar-scanner.bat -D sonar.login=USERNAME -D sonar.password=PASSWORD
    
  • Browse to http://SERVER-IP to find out the results. (SERVER-IP is a placeholder. Please, replace it with the actual domain of your SonarQube server).

You can find more information about SonarQube Scanner at SonarQube's official documentation.

How to start or stop the services?

Each Bitnami stack includes a control script that lets you easily stop, start and restart services. The script is located at /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh. Call it without any service name arguments to start all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start

Or use it to restart a single service, such as Apache only, by passing the service name as argument:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart apache

Use this script to stop all services:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop

Restart the services by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart

Obtain a list of available services and operations by running the script without any arguments:

$ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh

How to change the default administrator password?

Change the default administrator password manually

You can manually change the administrator password from the command line by following these steps:

  • Log in to the server console.
  • Obtain your database credentials. See the how to find the database credentials section to learn what is the database username and password.
  • Load the Bitnami SonarQube environment before connecting to your database server:

       $ sudo /opt/bitnami/use_sonarqube
    

Once you have obtained the database credentials and loaded the environment, you should be able to connect to the MySQL server in order to change the administrator password. To do so:

  • Access the database by executing the following command:

     $ mysql -u root -p bitnami_sonarqube
    

    You will be prompted for your current database password.

  • Execute the following command. It will change your application administrator password. Remember to replace NEW_PASSWORD with the password you wish to set as default.

     mysql> UPDATE users SET crypted_password=SHA1(CONCAT('--', salt, '--', 'NEW_PASSWORD', '--')) WHERE id='1';
    

Now, you should be able to access your application using the new password.

Change the default administrator password from the SonarQube dashboard

You can change the administrator password from the SonarQube dashboard by following these steps:

  • Log in to the SonarQube dashboard.
  • Under the "User Name" dropdown menu in the upper right corner, click on "My Account".

    User account settings

  • Select the "Security" tab.
  • Enter your old password and enter your new password twice to confirm the change.

    Change the default administrator password

  • Click the "Change password" button.

How to configure the SonarQube server domain name?

The SonarQube server domain name is the default IP address or domain name assigned when SonarQube is launched. In order to configure a different domain name, follow the steps below:

  • Log in to the SonarQube dashboard and click on the "Administration" tab.
  • Browse to the "Configuration -> General settings -> General" menu.
  • Under the "General" section, change the "Server base URL" to the new server domain name.
  • Save the changes.

You can also manually change the server domain name from the command line by following these steps:

  • Log in to the server console.
  • Use the command below to change the server domain name. Remember to replace the NEW_SERVER_DOMAIN placeholder with the new server domain name.

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/sonarqube/bnconfig --machine_hostname NEW_SERVER_DOMAIN
    

How to change the interface language?

SonarQube and SonarQube plugins rely on "Language Pack plugins" for translations. By default Bitnami SonarQube Stack embeds the English Pack.

In order to translate your SonarQube application, you need to install the proper "Language package" as you would any other plugin. Refer the Plugins instructions for more information on this.

You can find more information about the SonarQube Internationalization project at SonarQube's official Internationalization documentation.

How to access the administration panel?

Access the administration panel by browsing to http://SERVER-IP/sessions/new.

How to use the SonarQube Web API?

SonarQube provides a web API to access its functionality from applications.

All the documentation about how to use the SonarQube's web API is available by browsing to http://SERVER-IP/web_api. (SERVER-IP is a placeholder. Please, replace it with the actual domain of your SonarQube server).

How to install a plugin for SonarQube?

The Bitnami SonarQube Stack includes the plugins below by default:

How to install a plugin for SonarQube from the Admin Dashboard?

You can install plugins from the Admin Dashboard. To install a new plugin in SonarQube, follow these steps:

  • Log in to the SonarQube dashboard and click on the "Administration" tab.
  • Under the "System" dropdown menu, click on "Update center".
  • Select the "Available" tab and search for the plugin you want to install.
  • Click on the "Install" button.
  • Once the process finishes, you will be prompted to restart SonarQube in order to complete the installation. Click on the "Restart" button.
  • You will be prompted to confirm the action. Click again on the "Restart" button. This could take a few minutes.
  • That's it! Now you can navigate to the "Update center" again and check that your plugin is installed.

How to manually install a plugin for SonarQube?

To install a SonarQube plugin, download the plugin (.jar file) and save it in the /opt/bitnami/sonarqube/sonarqube/extensions/plugins/ directory. Then, change the file ownership to sonarqube user.

Here is an example of installing the GitHub plugin for SonarQube:

  • Log in to the server console.
  • Navigate to the /opt/bitnami/sonarqube/sonarqube/extensions/plugins/ directory.
  • Download the latest version of the plugin JAR by running the command below:

     $ sudo wget https://sonarsource.bintray.com/Distribution/sonar-github-plugin/sonar-github-plugin-1.4.1.822.jar
    
  • Change the ownership.

    $ sudo chown -R sonarqube:sonarqube sonar-github-plugin-1.4.1.822.jar
    
  • Restart SonarQube using the graphical manager or the command-line script:

    $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart sonarqube
    

How to create a full backup of SonarQube?

Backup

The Bitnami SonarQube Stack is self-contained and the simplest option for performing a backup is to copy or compress the Bitnami stack installation directory. To do so in a safe manner, you will need to stop all servers, so this method may not be appropriate if you have people accessing the application continuously.

Follow these steps:

  • Change to the directory in which you wish to save your backup:

      $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers:

      $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop
    
  • Create a compressed file with the stack contents:

      $ sudo tar -pczvf application-backup.tar.gz /opt/bitnami
    
  • Restart all servers:

      $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start
    

You should now download or transfer the application-backup.tar.gz file to a safe location.

Restore

Follow these steps:

  • Change to the directory containing your backup:

      $ cd /your/directory
    
  • Stop all servers:

      $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop
    
  • Move the current stack to a different location:

      $ sudo mv /opt/bitnami /tmp/bitnami-backup
    
  • Uncompress the backup file to the original directoryv

      $ sudo tar -pxzvf application-backup.tar.gz -C /
    
  • Start all servers:

      $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start
    

If you want to create only a database backup, refer to these instructions for MySQL and PostgreSQL.

How to upgrade the Bitnami SonarQube Stack?

It is strongly recommended that you create a backup before starting the update process. If you have important data, it is advisable that you try to create and restore a backup to ensure that everything works properly.

  • Log in to the server console.
  • Create a directory to save all the data you need to backup.

     $ mkdir ~/sonarqube-backup
     $ mkdir ~/sonarqube-backup/httpd
     $ mkdir ~/sonarqube-backup/httpd-ssl
     $ mkdir ~/sonarqube-backup/sonarqube
    
  • Back up the bitnami_sonarqube database as described on the MySQL page.
  • Copy the Web server configuration and SonarQube configuration directories to your backup directory. You can use the commands below:

     $ sudo cp -rf /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/sonarqube/conf/* ~/sonarqube-backup/sonarqube
     $ sudo cp -rf /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/conf/* ~/sonarqube-backup/httpd
     $ sudo cp /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.crt ~/sonarqube-backup/httpd-ssl
     $ sudo cp /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key ~/sonarqube-backup/httpd-ssl
     $ sudo cp /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server-ca.crt ~/sonarqube-backup/httpd-ssl
    
  • Compress the backup directory.

     $ tar cfz sonarqube-backup.tar.gz ~/sonarqube-backup
    
  • Download the backup files sonarqube-backup.tar.gz and backup.sql using SFTP. Refer to the FAQ for more information on this.
  • Launch a new SonarQube server.
  • Upload via SFTP the backups files sonarqube-backup.tar.gz and backup.sql to the new server. Refer to the FAQ for more information on this.
  • Log in to the server console.
  • Restore the database backup as described on the MySQL page.
  • Update the contents of the /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/sonarqube/conf/sonar.properties and /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/sonarqube/conf/wrapper.conf files with the settings of the related files in the sonarqube-backup/sonarqube backup directory. To do so, use an editor to modify them with the old settings (Web server URL, database, LDAP settings, …).

    NOTE: Edit the settings files manually. Do not copy-paste the old files.
  • Restore the Apache configuration files in the new SonarQube stack. You can use the commands below. Note that the second command will restore the server SSL certificates from your previous server, so only execute this command if required.

     $ sudo cp -rf sonarqube-backup/httpd/* /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/conf
     $ sudo cp sonarqube-backup/httpd-ssl/* /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf
    
  • Check if the plugins installed on the old stack are compatible with the new version of SonarQube by consulting the SonarQube compatibility Matrix. If any of them are incompatible, you will need to install the latest version of these plugins manually as described in the Manual Plugins installation instructions.
  • Restart SonarQube using the graphical manager or the command line script:

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart sonarqube
    
  • Browse to http://SERVER-IP/setup and follow the setup instructions (SERVER-IP is a placeholder that you should replace with the actual domain name or IP address of your SonarQube server).
  • Analyze your projects (and compute your Views if you are the owner of the governance product) to get fresh data.

Upgrade only SonarQube in the Bitnami SonarQube Stack

  • Log in to the server console.
  • Browse to https://www.sonarqube.org/downloads/ and find the link for the latest version of SonarQube.
  • Download the latest version using the link obtained in the previous step. For example (for version 6.3), run the commands below:

      $ wget https://sonarsource.bintray.com/Distribution/sonarqube/sonarqube-6.3.1.zip
      $ unzip sonarqube-6.3.1.zip
    
  • Backup your current SonarQube installation. To do that, use the command:

      $ sudo mv /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/sonarqube/ /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/sonarqube-backup/
    
  • Substitute your old installation with the new version. To do that, use the command below:

      $ sudo mv ~/sonarqube-6.3.1/ /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/sonarqube
    
  • Update the contents of the /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/sonarqube/conf/sonar.properties and /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/sonarqube/conf/wrapper.conf files with the settings of the related files in the /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube-backup/sonarqube/conf backup directory. To do so, use an editor to modify them with the old settings (web server URL, database, LDAP settings, etc.).

    NOTE: Edit the settings files manually. Do not copy-paste the old files.
  • Restore the permissions.

      $ sudo chown -R root:sonarqube /opt/bitnami/apps/sonarqube/sonarqube
    
  • Check if the plugins installed on the old stack are compatible with the new version of SonarQube by consulting the SonarQube compatibility Matrix. If any of them are incompatible, you need to install manually the latest version of these plugins as described in the Manual Plugins installation instructions.
  • Restart SonarQube using the graphical manager or the command line script:

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart sonarqube
    
  • Browse to http://SERVER-IP/setup and follow the setup instructions (SERVER-IP is a placeholder that you should replace with the actual domain name or IP address of your SonarQube server).
  • Analyze your projects (and compute your Views if you own the Governance product) to get fresh data.

How to create an SSL certificate?

OpenSSL is required to create an SSL certificate. A certificate request can then be sent to a certificate authority (CA) to get it signed into a certificate, or if you have your own certificate authority, you may sign it yourself, or you can use a self-signed certificate (because you just want a test certificate or because you are setting up your own CA).

Follow the steps below:

  • Generate a new private key:

     $ sudo openssl genrsa -out /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key 2048
    
  • Create a certificate:

     $ sudo openssl req -new -key /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key -out /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/cert.csr
    
    IMPORTANT: Enter the server domain name when the above command asks for the "Common Name".
  • Send cert.csr to the certificate authority. When the certificate authority completes their checks (and probably received payment from you), they will hand over your new certificate to you.

  • Until the certificate is received, create a temporary self-signed certificate:

     $ sudo openssl x509 -in /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/cert.csr -out /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.crt -req -signkey /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key -days 365
    
  • Back up your private key in a safe location after generating a password-protected version as follows:

     $ sudo openssl rsa -des3 -in /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key -out privkey.pem
    

    Note that if you use this encrypted key in the Apache configuration file, it will be necessary to enter the password manually every time Apache starts. Regenerate the key without password protection from this file as follows:

     $ sudo openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key
    

Find more information about certificates at http://www.openssl.org.

How to enable HTTPS support with SSL certificates?

TIP: If you wish to use a Let's Encrypt certificate, you will find specific instructions for enabling HTTPS support with Let's Encrypt SSL certificates in our Let's Encrypt guide.
NOTE: The steps below assume that you are using a custom domain name and that you have already configured the custom domain name to point to your cloud server.

Bitnami images come with SSL support already pre-configured and with a dummy certificate in place. Although this dummy certificate is fine for testing and development purposes, you will usually want to use a valid SSL certificate for production use. You can either generate this on your own (explained here) or you can purchase one from a commercial certificate authority.

Once you obtain the certificate and certificate key files, you will need to update your server to use them. Follow these steps to activate SSL support:

  • Use the table below to identify the correct locations for your certificate and configuration files.

    Variable Value
    Current application URL https://[custom-domain]/
      Example: https://my-domain.com/ or https://my-domain.com/appname
    Apache configuration file /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/bitnami/bitnami.conf
    Certificate file /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.crt
    Certificate key file /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server.key
    CA certificate bundle file (if present) /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server-ca.crt
  • Copy your SSL certificate and certificate key file to the specified locations.

    NOTE: If you use different names for your certificate and key files, you should reconfigure the SSLCertificateFile and SSLCertificateKeyFile directives in the corresponding Apache configuration file to reflect the correct file names.
  • If your certificate authority has also provided you with a PEM-encoded Certificate Authority (CA) bundle, you must copy it to the correct location in the previous table. Then, modify the Apache configuration file to include the following line below the SSLCertificateKeyFile directive. Choose the correct directive based on your scenario and Apache version:

    Variable Value
    Apache configuration file /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/bitnami/bitnami.conf
    Directive to include (Apache v2.4.8+) SSLCACertificateFile "/opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server-ca.crt"
    Directive to include (Apache < v2.4.8) SSLCertificateChainFile "/opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server-ca.crt"
    NOTE: If you use a different name for your CA certificate bundle, you should reconfigure the SSLCertificateChainFile or SSLCACertificateFile directives in the corresponding Apache configuration file to reflect the correct file name.
  • Once you have copied all the server certificate files, you may make them readable by the root user only with the following commands:

     $ sudo chown root:root /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server*
    
     $ sudo chmod 600 /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/server*
    
  • Open port 443 in the server firewall. Refer to the FAQ for more information.

  • Restart the Apache server.

You should now be able to access your application using an HTTPS URL.

How to force HTTPS redirection with Apache?

Add the following lines in the default Apache virtual host configuration file at /opt/bitnami/apache2/conf/bitnami/bitnami.conf, inside the default VirtualHost directive, so that it looks like this:

<VirtualHost _default_:80>
  DocumentRoot "/opt/bitnami/apache2/htdocs"
  RewriteEngine On
  RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
  RewriteRule ^/(.*) https://%{SERVER_NAME}/$1 [R,L]
  ...
</VirtualHost>

After modifying the Apache configuration files:

  • Open port 443 in the server firewall. Refer to the FAQ for more information.

  • Restart Apache to apply the changes.

How to debug Apache errors?

Once Apache starts, it will create two log files at /opt/bitnami/apache2/logs/access_log and /opt/bitnami/apache2/logs/error_log respectively.

  • The access_log file is used to track client requests. When a client requests a document from the server, Apache records several parameters associated with the request in this file, such as: the IP address of the client, the document requested, the HTTP status code, and the current time.

  • The error_log file is used to record important events. This file includes error messages, startup messages, and any other significant events in the life cycle of the server. This is the first place to look when you run into a problem when using Apache.

If no error is found, you will see a message similar to:

Syntax OK

How to find the MySQL database credentials?

How to connect to the MySQL database?

You can connect to the MySQL database from the same computer where it is installed with the mysql client tool.

$ mysql -u root -p

You will be prompted to enter the root user password. This is the same as the application password.

How to debug errors in your database?

The main log file is created at /opt/bitnami/mysql/data/mysqld.log on the MySQL database server host.

How to change the MySQL root password?

You can modify the MySQL password using the following command at the shell prompt. Replace the NEW_PASSWORD placeholder with the actual password you wish to set.

$ /opt/bitnami/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -p -u root password NEW_PASSWORD

How to reset the MySQL root password?

If you don't remember your MySQL root password, you can follow the steps below to reset it to a new value:

  • Create a file in /home/bitnami/mysql-init with the content shown below (replace NEW_PASSWORD with the password you wish to use):

     UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('NEW_PASSWORD') WHERE User='root';
     FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    

    If your stack ships MySQL v5.7.x, use the following content instead of that shown above:

     UPDATE mysql.user SET authentication_string=PASSWORD('NEW_PASSWORD') WHERE User='root';
     FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    
    TIP: Check the MySQL version with the command /opt/bitnami/mysql/bin/mysqladmin --version or /opt/bitnami/mysql/bin/mysqld --version.
  • Stop the MySQL server:

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop mysql
    
  • Start MySQL with the following command:

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --pid-file=/opt/bitnami/mysql/data/mysqld.pid --datadir=/opt/bitnami/mysql/data --init-file=/home/bitnami/mysql-init 2> /dev/null &
    
  • Restart the MySQL server:

     $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart mysql
    
  • Remove the script:

     $ rm /home/bitnami/mysql-init
    

How to upload files to the server with SFTP?

Although you can use any SFTP/SCP client to transfer files to your server, the link below explains how to configure FileZilla (Windows, Linux and Mac OS X), WinSCP (Windows) and Cyberduck (Mac OS X). It is required to use your server's private SSH key to configure the SFTP client properly. Choose your preferred application and follow the steps in the link below to connect to the server through SFTP.

How to upload files to the server

How to enforce SonarQube security?

Authentication and Authorization.

In the Bitnami SonarQube Stack, user authenticaiton is activated by defatul using the users/groups mechanism. Refer to the First Step section in order to find the default credentials.

You can configure the SonarQube application to use a different authentication mechanism as described in the SonarQube's official authentication documentation.

You can also customize the User/Groups authorization settings along with the project and global permissions. Please refer to the SonarQube's official authorization documentation for more information.

Settings Encryption

SonarQube provides a mechanism to encrypt the settings, which is very useful for removing clear passwords and credentials from the configuration files.

By default, these settings are not encrypted in the Bitnami SonarQube Stack. It is strongly recommended to encrypt them in order to enforce the security of your application. Please folllow the steps described at SonarQube's official Encryption documentation in order to do so.

In order to configure outbound email, follow the steps below:

  • Log in to the SonarQube dashboard and click on the "Administration" tab.
  • Browse to the "Configuration -> General settings -> General" menu.
  • Under the "Email" section, fill out the required information. The settings below configure SonarQube to send emails through a Gmail account. Replace USERNAME and PASSWORD with your Gmail account username and password, respectively.

       SMTP port: 587
       SMTP host: smtp.gmail.com
       Secure connection: starttls
       SMTP password: PASSWORD
       SMTP username: USERNAME@gmail.com
    
  • Save the changes.
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